Toxic Mold Illness Research


Pink Stachy 1

A close-up of Stachybotrys chartarum spores.


A relatively recent phenomenon in the scientific literature is the study of mycotoxins — poisons made by a very few species of mold.There now are tens of thousands of peer-reviewed papers on mycotoxins, including thousands showing health effects in mammals and many hundreds showing health effects in humans.

Mycotoxins have been recognized since the 1960’s to be a problem with regard to the contamination of various human and animal food products.

They also are a component of at least some colonizing fungal infections (such as aspergillosis) and have been put to medical use in antibiotics such as penicillin.

Concern about the role of environmental molds in the air is more recent, with the vast majority of studies being published since 2000.


Changed Building Techniques

Although Leviticus (Ch. 13-14) gives detailed instructions on the importance of dealing appropriately with environmental mold, most of the problems associated with toxin-producing molds seem to have been prompted by the development of modern living environments.

For instance, Stachybotrys chartarum (“black mold”) had historically grown on straw and was first found growing indoors under wallpaper in the mid 1800’s. The phenomenon of “Gosio’s Gas” also occurred in the 1800’s, when the mold Scopulariopsis brevicaulis converted arsenic pigments in wallpaper into hazardous arsine gas.

Changed building techniques (including cellulose-containing drywall and wall insulation; decreased indoor-outdoor air circulation; centralized ductwork; temperature/humidity climate control; and low-budget construction) starting in the 1970’s have resulted in dramatic increases in toxin-producing molds in many homes, office and commercial buildings, and (perhaps especially) schools.

The combination of toxins (including a variety of mold toxins, bacteria toxins, amoebas and various chemicals) in some buildings may have the potential of producing particularly severe health effects in at least a segment of those exposed.


Specific Mycotoxins

Extensive research has been done on the effects of specific mycotoxins.

For instance, gliotoxin appears to be especially associated with multiple sclerosis. Penitrem A is associated with neurological issues. Aflatoxin is associated with liver cancer, and ochratoxin is associated with kidney disease.

Many of the specific abnormalities present in myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and related diseases seem to be very consistent with the effects of trichothecenes, such as those produced by Stachybotrys.

Some effects of trichothecenes that have been firmly established in the literature include:

* Damage to the immune system (especially the innate immune system)

* Neurological damage (cognition, emotional stability, processing of sensory information)

* Mitochondrial damage (interfering with energy production)

* Severe oxidative stress and depletion of glutathione (causing free radical damage and leading to problems with pathogen killing and detoxification)

* Gut dysbiosis (mycotoxins kill off a wide range of bacteria)

* Perforations in the blood-brain barrier (potentially allowing toxins, gluten and pathogens that ordinarily would be kept out to enter freely and cause damage)

* Intestinal permeability (contributing to gluten/food sensitivities and other issues)

* Systemwide inflammation (including elevations in IL-1b, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha and N-F-k-b)

Long-term, low-dose exposures to trichothecenes (such as are experienced when people live for months or years in even moderately contaminated buildings) can be especially damaging.

The presence of endotoxin (LPS), which is made by bacteria that can be present either in problem buildings or colonizing the gut, can cause Stachybotrys to be harmful in much smaller amounts.

A Paradigm Change blog article – “Losing My Defenses: An Interview with Dr. Enusha Karunasena on the Neurological Effects of Satratoxin” – may be useful for those interested in learning more about the some of the effects of Stachybotrys toxins that may be involved in causing complex chronic illness.




Following is a list of research articles related to the topic of the health effects of toxic mold exposures, organized by topic.


General Health Effects

Moldy Buildings


Health Effects by Toxin Type


Fusarium Toxins


Penitrem A

Stachybotrys Toxins


Additional Topics

Aflatoxin and AIDS

Autism and Fungi

Locations Effect

Mycotoxins & Children

Mycotoxins Review Articles


More Mold Research

This document prepared by Jack Dwayne Thrasher, Ph.D., and Irene Grant, M.D., in 2015 may include a few additional articles useful to those searching for research information on mold illness.

References on Mold Illnesses – 2015


ME and CFS

Many of the physiological abnormalities in patients with ME and CFS are consistent with the idea that mycotoxins may be playing an important role in the illness etiology.

Research articles presenting evidence of physiological abnormalities in this disease are summarized in the following section of the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis website (presented by Paradigm Change).

ME and CFS Abnormalities


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