Health Effects of Stachybotrys Chartarum – Pulmonary Hypertension



This page lists medical journal articles discussing pulmonary hypertension associated with Stachybotrys exposures.

The Health Effects of Stachybotrys Chartarum page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this toxic mold.


West J, Hemnes A. Experimental and transgenic models of pulmonary hypertension. Comprehensive Physiology. 2011;1:769–782. PMID: 23737202

Pulmonary hypertension in human patients can result from increased pulmonary vascular tone, pressure transferred from the systemic circulation, dropout of small pulmonary vessels, occlusion of vessels with thrombi or intimal lesions, or some combination of all of these. Different animal models have been designed to reflect these different mechanistic origins of disease. Pulmonary hypertension models may be roughly grouped into tone-related models, inflammation-related models, and genetic models with unusual or mixed mechanism. Inflammation-related models can use either toxic chemicals (monocrotaline, bleomycin), live pathogens (stachybotrys, schistosomiasis), or genetic modifications (IL-6, VIP).


Ryan J, Bloch K, Archer SL. Rodent models of pulmonary hypertension: harmonisation with the world health organisation’s categorisation of human PH. International journal of clinical practice. Supplement. 2011:15–34. PMID: 21736677

The WHO classification of pulmonary hypertension (PH) recognises five distinct groups, all sharing a mean, resting, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) > 25 mmHg. Mouse models of group 1 PH include: transgenic mice overexpressing the serotonin transporter or dominant-negative mutants of bone morphogenetic protein receptor-2. Group 1 PH is also created by infecting S100A4/Mts1 mice with γ-herpesvirus. The histological features of group 1 PH, but not PH itself, are induced by exposure to Schistosoma mansoni or Stachybotrys chartarum.


Ochiai E, Kamei K, Watanabe A, Nagayoshi M, Tada Y, Nagaoka T, Sato K, Sato A, Shibuya K. Inhalation of Stachybotrys chartarum causes pulmonary arterial hypertension in mice. International journal of experimental pathology. 2008;89:201–208. PMID: 18460072

Inhalation of Stachybotrys chartarum, a ubiquitous fungus in our living environment, has been suspected as a cause of acute idiopathic pulmonary haemorrhage in infants, but its relation to human diseases is not yet known. The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of repeated intratracheal injection of the fungus into mice, paying special attention to the pulmonary vascular system. This study showed that the inhalation of S. chartarum caused PAH in mice, suggesting a potential of S. chartarum as a cause of human health problem such as PAH.


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