Health Effects of Stachybotrys – Ingestion Issues



This page lists medical journal articles discussing ingestion issues associated with Stachybotrys exposures.

The Health Effects of Stachybotrys Chartarum page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this toxic mold.


Wu W, Zhou HR, Pan X, Pestka JJ. Comparison of Anorectic Potencies of the Trichothecenes T-2 Toxin, HT-2 Toxin and Satratoxin G to the Ipecac Alkaloid Emetine. Toxicol Rep. 2015;2:238-251. PMID: 25932382

Food refusal is a hallmark of exposure of experimental animals to deoxynivalenol (DON) and other Type B trichothecenes but less is known about the anorectic effects of foodborne Type A trichothecenes (e.g., T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin), airborne Type D trichothecenes (e.g. satratoxin G [SG]) or functionally analogous metabolites that impair protein synthesis. Here, we utilized a well-described mouse model of food intake to compare the anorectic potencies of T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, and SG to that of emetine, a medicinal alkaloid derived from ipecac that inhibits translation. All four compounds were generally much more potent than DON.


Gelev I., Dimitrov Kh h., Tomova A.. Immunological activity of the blood sera from cattle with chronic mycotoxicosis. Veterinarno-meditsinski nauki. 1986;23:16–24. PMID: 3739219

Attempts were made to disclose and reproduce the immunologic activity of the blood sera of cows, aborted fetuses, and newborn calves in feeding the cows with feeds acted upon by small amounts of toxic moulds. It was found that in continuous feeding with mould-affected forages the toxins that gained access into the body attacked chiefly the liver. Along with other changes it induced the release of a complex antigen that was likely to bear the character of both the toxin and the liver proteins. It is believed that the process of building up of specific immune defense against mycotoxins is more complex and continuous. Thus, the immunity obtained is not so effective as in the case of microbial infections.


Dzhurov A., Aleksandrov M., Belchev L., Ignatov G.. Pathomorphology of stachybotryotoxicosis in calves during the nursing period. Veterinarno-meditsinski nauki. 1984;21:49–56. PMID: 6542274

An enzootic of stachybotryotoxicosis was established on a dairy farm. A characteristic clinical feature was the edema in the intermandibular space. Morphologically, there were numerous hemorrhages in the subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscles, abomasal and intestinal mucosa, kidney cortex, and urinary bladder as well as ulcerous and erosive colitis, edematized mesenterial lymph nodes and occasionally catarrhal and necrotic stomatitis, icterus, and perirenal edema. Histologically, there were degenerative nephrosis, focal hemorrhagic glomerulonephritis (occasionally coupled with bacterial embolization and dystrophic calcification of the kidneys), granular degeneration of the liver and heart, hemorrhages and edema of the lungs, and edema, hyperemia, and thrombi in the brain.


Hajtós I., Harrach B., Szigeti G., Fodor L., Malik G., Varga J.. Stachybotryotoxicosis as a predisposing factor of ovine systemic pasteurellosis. Acta veterinaria Hungarica. 1983;31:181–188. PMID: 6234780


Schneider D. J., Marasas W. F., Dale Kuys J. C., Kriek N. P., Van Schalkwyk G. C.. A field outbreak of suspected stachybotryotoxicosis in sheep. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association. 1979;50:73–81. PMID: 575906

An outbreak of mortality in a flock of mutton merino sheep is described. It was characterized by haemorrhagic septicaemia, anaemia, leucocytopaenia and haemorrhagic tendencies. The main clinical signs occurred in two phases: an elevated body temperature, listlessness, epistaxis and intermittent haemorrhagic diarrhoea during the first phase of the outbreak, and a progressively worsening anaemia, leucocytopaenia and less severe haemorrhagic tendencies and a terminally elevated body temperature during the second phase. The predominant autopsy findings were purpuric haemorrhage on serosal and mucosal surfaces and in most of the organs, enterorrhagia and severe pulmonary congestion and oedema during the first stage; anaemia was the predominant sign during the second stage – widespread haemorrhage still occurred but was less extensive. Histologically the most salient features were atrophy and necrosis of the lymphoid tissue, aplastic anaemia and a markedly impaired inflammatory response.


Le Bars J., Gérard J. P., Michel C.. Demonstration of stachybotryotoxicosis in France: a case of acute intoxication in deer. Annales de la nutrition et de l’alimentation. 1977;31:509–517. PMID: 566066


Forgacs J, Carll WT, Herring AS, Hinshaw WR. Toxicity of Stachybotrys atra for animals. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1958;20:787– 808. PMID: 13569556


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