Health Effects of Stachybotrys Chartarum – Genotoxicity



This page lists medical journal articles discussing genotoxicity associated with Stachybotrys exposures.

The Health Effects of Stachybotrys Chartarum page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this toxic mold.


He K, Zhou HR, Pestka JJ. Mechanisms for ribotoxin-induced ribosomal RNA cleavage. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2012;265:10–18. PMID: 23022514

The Type B trichothecene deoxynivalenol (DON), a ribotoxic mycotoxin known to contaminate cereal-based foods, induces ribosomal RNA (rRNA) cleavage in the macrophage via p38-directed activation of caspases. Here we employed the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage model to test the hypothesis that this rRNA cleavage pathway is similarly induced by other ribotoxins – anisomycin, satratoxin G and ricin. The data suggest that (1) all four ribotoxins induced p53-dependent rRNA cleavage via activation of cathepsin L and caspase 3, and (2) activation of p53 by DON and anisomycin involved p38 whereas SG and ricin activated p53 by an alternative mechanism.


Nusuetrong P, Saito M, Kikuchi H, Oshima Y, Moriya T, Nakahata N. Apoptotic effects of satratoxin H is mediated through DNA double-stranded break in PC12 cells. The Journal of toxicological sciences. 2012;37:803–812. PMID: 22863859

Satratoxin H is known to induce apoptosis as well as genotoxicity in PC12 cells. In the present study, we further investigated the mechanism of apoptotic effects of satratoxin H with focus on caspase-3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) pathway. We also examined whether it induces DNA damage in PC12 cells. The results suggest that satratoxin H induces genotoxicity by DNA double-stranded break.


Rakkestad KE, Skaar I, Ansteinsson VE, Solhaug A, Holme JA, Pestka JJ, Samuelsen JT, Dahlman HJ, Hongslo JK, Becher R. DNA damage and DNA damage responses in THP-1 monocytes after exposure to spores of either Stachybotrys chartarum or Aspergillus versicolor or to T-2 toxin. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2010;115:140–155. PMID: 20150440

The researchers characterized cell death in THP-1 cells after exposure to heat-treated spores from satratoxin G-producing Stachybotrys chartarum isolate IBT 9631, atranone-producing S. chartarum isolate IBT 9634, and sterigmatocystin-producing Aspergillus versicolor isolate IBT 3781, as well as the trichothecenes T-2 and satratoxin G. Spores induced cell death within 3-6 h, with Stachybotrys appearing most potent. The DNA damage response induced by IBT 9631 as well as satratoxin G was characterized by rapid (15 min) activation of p38 and H2AX.


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