Health Effects of Stachybotrys Chartarum – Cytotoxicity



This page lists medical journal articles discussing cytotoxicity associated with Stachybotrys exposures.

The Health Effects of Stachybotrys Chartarum page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this toxic mold.


Nielsen C, Casteel M, Didier A, Dietrich R, Märtlbauer E. Trichothecene-induced cytotoxicity on human cell lines. Mycotoxin research. 2009;25:77–84. PMID: 23604982

Trichothecene cytotoxicity of type A (T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin), type B (deoxynivalenol, DON, and nivalenol, NIV), and type D (satratoxins G and H) compounds was determined comparatively by using eight permanent human cell lines. The results suggest that the current focus of cytotoxicological studies on trichothecenes on lymphoid cell lines may lead to an underestimate of their potential on other target cell systems.


Nagase M, Shiota T, Tsushima A, Murshedul Alam M, Fukuoka S, Yoshizawa T, Sakato N. Molecular mechanism of satratoxin-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells: activation of caspase-8 and caspase-9 is involved in activation of caspase-3. Immunology letters. 2002;84:23–27. PMID: 12161280

Satratoxins have been recognized as potential immunomodulatory agents in outbreaks of building-related illness. Here we report that satratoxin G-induced apoptosis involves activation of caspase-3 and DFF-40/CAD through both activation of caspase-8 and cytosolic accumulation of cytochrome c along with activation of caspase-9.


Nagase M, Alam MM, Tsushima A, Yoshizawa T, Sakato N. Apoptosis induction by T-2 toxin: activation of caspase-9, caspase-3, and DFF-40/CAD through cytosolic release of cytochrome c in HL-60 cells. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry. 2001;65:1741–1747. PMID: 11577712

The molecules participating in apoptosis induced by T-2 toxin in human leukemia HL-60 cells were investigated. The rank order of the potency of trichothecene mycotoxins to induce internucleosomal DNA fragmentation was found to be T-2, satratoxin G, roridin A >> diacetoxyscirpenol > baccharin B-5 >> nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, baccharin B-4=vehicle control.


Yang GH, Jarvis BB, Chung YJ, Pestka JJ. Apoptosis induction by the satratoxins and other trichothecene mycotoxins: relationship to ERK, p38 MAPK, and SAPK/JNK activation. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2000;164:149–160. PMID: 10764628

The purpose of this study was to relate cytotoxic and apoptotic capacities of satratoxins and other trichothecenes to the activation of three groups of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK), p38 MAPK, and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK)). Upon evaluating representative trichothecenes in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) cleavage assay, cytotoxicity was evident according to the following rank order: satratoxin G, roridin A, and verrucarin A > T-2 toxin, satratoxin F, H > nivalenol, and vomitoxin. The results suggest that the satratoxins are among the most potent trichothecenes and that MAPKs may play integral roles in the diverse toxic manifestations of these mycotoxins.


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