Health Effects of Penitrem A – Parasite Issues



This page lists medical journal articles discussing the potential association between parasite issues and the mycotoxin known as penitrem A.

The Health Effects of Penitrem A page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this mycotoxin.


Welz Claudia, Krüger Nina, Schniederjans Monika, et al. SLO-1-channels of parasitic nematodes reconstitute locomotor behaviour and emodepside sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans slo-1 loss of function mutants. PLoS pathogens. 2011;7. PMID: 21490955

The calcium-gated potassium channel SLO-1 in Caenorhabditis elegans was recently identified as key component for action of emodepside, a new anthelmintic drug with broad spectrum activity. A potent mammalian SLO-1 channel inhibitor, penitrem A, showed emodepside antagonising effects in A. caninum and C. elegans.


Kumar D., White C., Fairweather I., McGeown J. G.. Electrophysiological and pharmacological characterization of K+-currents in muscle fibres isolated from the ventral sucker of Fasciola hepatica. Parasitology. 2004;129:779–793. PMID: 15648701

Fibres isolated from the ventral sucker of Fasciola hepatica were identified as muscle on the basis of their contractility, and their actin and myosin staining. They were voltage-clamped at a holding potential of -40 mV and depolarization-activated outward currents were characterized both electrophysiologically and pharmacologically. Penitrem A, a blocker of high-conductance Ca2+-activated K+-channels reduced the current at +60 mV by 23+/-5%. We conclude that voltage-and Ca2+-sensitive K+-channels are expressed in this tissue, but that their pharmacology differs considerably from equivalent channels in other phyla.


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