Health Effects of Penitrem A – Lymphatic Issues


Penicillium crustosum is a source of penitrem A.


This page lists medical journal articles discussing the association between lymphatic issues and the mycotoxin known as penitrem A.

The Health Effects of Penitrem A page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this mycotoxin.


Beckett E. A., Hollywood M. A., Thornbury K. D., McHale N. G.. Spontaneous electrical activity in sheep mesenteric lymphatics. Lymphatic research and biology. 2007;5:29– 43. PMID: 17508900

Intracellular microelectrode recordings were made from smooth muscle of sheep mesenteric lymphatics to investigate the electrophysiological basis of lymphatic pumping. Penitrem-A (0.1 microM) did not affect resting membrane potential but increased action potential amplitude and prolonged the plateau, suggesting that calcium-activated potassium current does not make a significant contribution to resting membrane conductance but is important in membrane repolarization following calcium influx during the action potential.


Weid P. Y.. ATP-sensitive K+ channels in smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig mesenteric lymphatics: role in nitric oxide and beta-adrenoceptor agonist-induced hyperpolarizations. British journal of pharmacology. 1998;125:17–22. PMID: 9776338

Intracellular microelectrode recordings were performed to investigate the membrane K+ conductances involved in smooth musclehyperpolarization of lymphatic vessels in the guinea-pig mesentery. ACh and SNP-induced hyperpolarizations were inhibited (by about 90%) upon application of the ATP-sensitive K+(K(ATP)) channel blocker, glibenclamide (10 microM), or with 4-aminopyridine (2.5 mM), but were not affected by the Ca2+-activated K+ channels blocker, penitrem A (100 nM).


Cotton K. D., Hollywood M. A., McHale N. G., Thornbury K. D.. Outward currents in smooth muscle cells isolated from sheep mesenteric lymphatics. The Journal of physiology. 1997;503 ( Pt 1):1–11. PMID: 9288669

The patch-clamp technique was used to measure membrane currents in isolated smooth muscle cells dispersed from sheep mesenteric lymphatics. In whole-cell experiments a voltage-dependent outward current remained when the Ca(2+)-activated current was blocked with penitrem A (100 nM). These results suggest that lymphatic smooth muscle cells generate a Ca(2+)-activated current, largely mediated by large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels, and several components of voltage-dependent outward current which resemble ‘delayed rectifier’ currents in other smooth muscle preparations.


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