Health Effects of Penitrem A – Penicillium Crustosum Colonization



This page lists medical journal articles discussing the colonization of the human body with Penicillium crustosum, which manufactures penitrem A.

The Health Effects of Penitrem A page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this mycotoxin.


Murr Andrew H., Goldberg Andrew N., Pletcher Steven D., Dillehay Kelsey, Wymer Larry J., Vesper Stephen J.. Some chronic rhinosinusitis patients have elevated populations of fungi in their sinuses. The Laryngoscope. 2012;122:1438–1445. PMID: 22532289 

Populations of 36 fungi were measured in sinus samples and in the home vacuum cleaner dust of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and non-CRS patients using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Seven fungi (Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides types 1 and 2, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, and Penicillium chrysogenum type 2) were discovered at very high concentrations in some CRS patients. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of these seven fungi demonstrated species specific sensitivities. Four CRS patients with marked elevations of fungal populations in their sinus samples underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. After surgical treatment, the fungal populations were reduced by several orders of magnitude.


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