Penitrem A – Classification



This page lists medical journal articles discussing the scientific classification of penitrem A and the molds that manufacture it.

The Health Effects of Penitrem A page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this mycotoxin.


Visagie CM, Renaud JB, Burgess KM, Malloch DW, Clark D, Ketch L, Urb M, Louis-Seize G, Assabgui R, Sumarah MW, Seifert KA. Fifteen new species of Penicillium. Persoonia. 2016 Jun;36:247-80. PMID: 27616792

We introduce 15 new species of Penicillium isolated from a diverse range of locations, including Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Italy, New Zealand, Tanzania, USA and the Dry Valleys of Antarctica, from a variety of habitats, including leaf surfaces in tropical rain forests, soil eaten by chimpanzees, infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants, intestinal contents of caterpillars and soil. Significant extrolites detected include andrastin, pulvilloric acid, penitrem A and citrinin amongst many others.


Liu C, Tagami K, Minami A, Matsumoto T, Frisvad JC, Suzuki H, Ishikawa J, Gomi K, Oikawa H. Reconstitution of biosynthetic machinery for the synthesis of the highly elaborated indole diterpene penitrem. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2015 May 4;54(19):5748-52. PMID: 25831977

Penitrem A is one of the most elaborated members of the fungal indole diterpenes. Two separate penitrem gene clusters were identified using genomic and RNA sequencing data, and 13 out of 17 transformations in the penitrem biosynthesis were elucidated by heterologous reconstitution of the relevant genes.


Su SS, Song AH, Chen G, Wang HF, Li ZQ, Pei YH. Two new indole-diterpenoids from the fungus Penicillium crustosum YN-HT-15. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2014;16(3):285-9. PMID:24456250

Two new indole-diterpenoids named penijanthine B and penitrem H were isolated from the metabolites of the fungus Penicillium crustosum YN-HT-15, which was isolated from the red soil of Yunnan Province of China. The structures were determined on spectroscopic analyses and CD spectra.


Smith A. B., Kanoh N., Minakawa N., Rainier J. D., Blase F. R., Hartz R. A.. Tremorgenic indole alkaloids. Studies directed toward the assembly of the A, F, and I rings of penitrem D: observation of an unexpected stereochemical outcome. Organic letters. 1999;1:1263–1266.


Boysen M., Skouboe P., Frisvad J., Rossen L.. Reclassification of the Penicillium roqueforti group into three species on the basis of molecular genetic and biochemical profiles. Microbiology (Reading, England). 1996;142 ( Pt 3):541–549.


Frisvad J. C., Filtenborg O.. Classification of terverticillate penicillia based on profiles of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1983;46:1301–1310.


Frisvad J. C.. Physiological criteria and mycotoxin production as AIDS in identification of common asymmetric penicillia. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1981;41:568– 579.


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