Health Effects of Penitrem A – Metabolism



This page lists medical journal articles discussing the metabolism of penitrem A.

The Health Effects of Penitrem A page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this mycotoxin.


Fæste CK, Moldes-Anaya A. Biotransformation of the fungal neurotoxin Thomitrem A by primary rat hepatocytes. Toxicon. 2016 Dec 15;124:36-43. PMID: 27816536

The tremorgenic mycotoxin Thomitrem A is a secondary metabolite produced mainly by the fungus Penicillium crustosum that is frequently found on spoiled stored food and feed. Typical signs of intoxication observed in dogs after the consumption of food waste are emesis, tremors, seizures progressing to ataxia and lack of coordinated movements. In this study the toxin was metabolised in an exploratory in vitro experiment by rat hepatocytes, and substrate depletion as well as the formation of hepatic metabolites were investigated.
Moldes-Anaya Angel, Wilkins Alistair L., Rundberget Thomas, Faeste Christiane K.. In vitro and in vivo hepatic metabolism of the fungal neurotoxin penitrem A. Drug and chemical toxicology. 2009;32:26–37.


Laws I., Mantle P. G., Smith B. L.. Excretion and transformation of [14C] penitrem mycotoxins in sheep bile. Research in veterinary science. 1987;43:199–202.


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