Fusarium Literature – Overview



Review Articles

Luz C, Saladino F, Luciano FB, Mañes J, Meca G. Occurrence, toxicity, bioaccessibility and mitigation strategies of beauvericin, a minor Fusarium mycotoxin. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 Jul 15. PMID: 28720287

Fraeyman S, Croubels S, Devreese M, Antonissen G. Emerging Fusarium and Alternaria Mycotoxins: Occurrence, Toxicity and Toxicokinetics. Toxins (Basel). 2017 Jul 18;9(7). PMID: 28718805

Gratz SW. Do Plant-Bound Masked Mycotoxins Contribute to Toxicity? Toxins (Basel). 2017 Feb 28;9(3). PMID: 28264486

Adhikari M, Negi B, Kaushik N, Adhikari A, Al-Khedhairy AA, Kaushik NK, Choi EH. T-2 mycotoxin: toxicological effects and decontamination strategies. Oncotarget. 2017 May 16;8(20):33933-33952. PMID: 28430618

Alshannaq A, Yu JH. Occurrence, Toxicity, and Analysis of Major Mycotoxins in Food. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jun 13;14(6). PMID: 28608841

Chen L, Peng Z, Nüssler AK, Liu L, Yang W. Current and prospective sights in mechanism of deoxynivalenol-induced emesis for future scientific study and clinical treatment. J Appl Toxicol. 2017 Jul;37(7):784-791. PMID: 28138998

Chilaka CA, De Boevre M, Atanda OO, De Saeger S. The Status of Fusarium Mycotoxins in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Review of Emerging Trends and Post-Harvest Mitigation Strategies towards Food Control. Toxins (Basel). 2017 Jan 5;9(1). PMID: 28067768

Munkvold GP. Fusarium Species and Their Associated Mycotoxins. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1542:51-106. PMID: 27924531

Aupanun S, Poapolathep S, Giorgi M, Imsilp K, Poapolathep A. An overview of the toxicology and toxicokinetics of fusarenon-X, a type B trichothecene mycotoxin. J Vet Med Sci. 2017 Jan 20;79(1):6-13. PMID: 27534911

Chen L, Yu M, Wu Q, Peng Z, Wang D, Kuča K, Yao P, Yan H, Nüssler AK, Liu L, Yang W. Gender and geographical variability in the exposure pattern and metabolism of deoxynivalenol in humans: a review. J Appl Toxicol. 2017 Jan;37(1):60-70. PMID: 27456930

Pitt JI, Miller JD. A Concise History of Mycotoxin Research. J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Dec 27. PMID: 27960261

Tima H, Rácz A, Guld Z, Mohácsi-Farkas C, Kiskó G. Deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 in grain based swine feed in Hungary. Food Addit Contam Part B Surveill. 2016 Dec;9(4):275-280. PMID: 27462912

Alizadeh A, Braber S, Akbari P, Kraneveld A, Garssen J, Fink-Gremmels J. Deoxynivalenol and Its Modified Forms: Are There Major Differences? Toxins (Basel). 2016 Nov 16;8(11). PMID: 27854268

Gruber-Dorninger C, Novak B, Nagl V, Berthiller F. Emerging Mycotoxins: Beyond Traditionally Determined Food Contaminants. J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Sep 16. PMID: 27599910

Aiko V, Mehta A. Occurrence, detection and detoxification of mycotoxins. J Biosci. 2015 Dec;40(5):943-54. PMID: 26648039

He JW, Bondy GS, Zhou T, Caldwell D, Boland GJ, Scott PM. Toxicology of 3-epi-deoxynivalenol, a deoxynivalenol-transformation product by Devosia mutans 17-2-E-8. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Oct;84:250-9. PMID: 26363308

Lee HJ, Ryu D. Advances in Mycotoxin Research: Public Health Perspectives. J Food Sci. 2015 Dec;80(12):T2970-83. PMID: 26565730

Gallo A, Giuberti G, Frisvad JC, Bertuzzi T, Nielsen KF. Review on Mycotoxin Issues in Ruminants: Occurrence in Forages, Effects of Mycotoxin Ingestion on Health Status and Animal Performance and Practical Strategies to Counteract Their Negative Effects. Toxins (Basel). 2015 Aug 12;7(8):3057-111. PMID: 26274974

Escrivá L, Font G, Manyes L. In vivo toxicity studies of fusarium mycotoxins in the last decade: a review. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Apr;78:185-206. PMID: 25680507

Wan Q, Wu G, He Q, Tang H, Wang Y. The toxicity of acute exposure to T-2 toxin evaluated by the metabonomics technique. Mol Biosyst. 2015 Mar;11(3):882-91. PMID: 25588579

Nesic K, Ivanovic S, Nesic V. Fusarial toxins: secondary metabolites of Fusarium fungi. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014;228:101-20. PMID: 24162094

Weber RW, Levetin E. Allergen of the month–Fusarium. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2014 May;112(5):A11. PMID: 24767697

Darwish WS, Ikenaka Y, Nakayama SM, Ishizuka M. An overview on mycotoxin contamination of foods in Africa. J Vet Med Sci. 2014 Jun;76(6):789-97. PMID: 24572628

Kovalsky Paris MP, Schweiger W, Hametner C, Stückler R, Muehlbauer GJ, Varga E, Krska R, Berthiller F, Adam G. Zearalenone-16-O-glucoside: a new masked mycotoxin. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Feb 5;62(5):1181-9. PMID: 24386883

Dellafiora L, Perotti A, Galaverna G, Buschini A, Dall’Asta C. On the masked mycotoxin zearalenone-14-glucoside. Does the mask truly hide? Toxicon. 2016 Mar 1;111:139-42. PMID: 26792714

Wu F, Groopman JD, Pestka JJ. Public health impacts of foodborne mycotoxins. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 2014;5:351-72. PMID: 24422587

Woloshuk Charles P., Shim Won-Bo B.. Aflatoxins, fumonisins, and trichothecenes: a convergence of knowledge. FEMS microbiology reviews.  2013;37:94–109.

Abbas Hamed K., Yoshizawa Takumi, Shier W. Thomas. Cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity of trichothecene mycotoxins produced by Fusarium spp.  Toxicon.  2013;74:68–75.

Li Yanshen, Wang Zhanhui, Beier Ross C., et al. T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin: review of toxicity, metabolism, and analytical methods.  Journal of agricultural and food chemistry.  2011;59:3441–3453.

Straus David C.. The possible role of fungal contamination in sick building syndrome. Frontiers in bioscience (Elite edition).  2011;3:562–580.

McCormick Susan P., Stanley April M., Stover Nicholas A., Alexander Nancy J. Trichothecenes: from simple to complex mycotoxins. Toxins.  2011;3:802–814.

Sobrova Pavlina, Adam Vojtech, Vasatkova Anna, Beklova Miroslava, Zeman Ladislav, Kizek Rene. Deoxynivalenol and its toxicity.  Interdisciplinary toxicology.  2010;3:94–99.

Pestka James J.. Deoxynivalenol: mechanisms of action, human exposure, and toxicological relevance. Archives of toxicology.  2010;84:663–679.

Muri Stefan D., Voet Hilko, Boon Polly E., Klaveren Jacob D., Brüschweiler Beat J.. Comparison of human health risks resulting from exposure to fungicides and mycotoxins via food. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2009;47:2963–2974.

Lazo Ramón F., Sierra Gonzalo. Mycotoxin research in humans.  Revista iberoamericana de micología.  2008;25:7–11.

Richard John L.. Some major mycotoxins and their mycotoxicoses–an overview. International journal of food microbiology.  2007;119:3–10.

Pestka James J., Smolinski Alexa T.. Deoxynivalenol: toxicology and potential effects on humans. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews.  2005;8:39–69.

Rocha O., Ansari K., Doohan F. M.. Effects of trichothecene mycotoxins on eukaryotic cells: a review. Food additives and contaminants.  2005;22:369–378.

Larsen John Christian C., Hunt Josephine, Perrin Irène, Ruckenbauer Peter. Workshop on trichothecenes with a focus on DON: summary report.  Toxicology letters.  2004;153:1–22.

Kovács Melinda. Nutritional health aspects of mycotoxins. Orvosi hetilap.  2004;145:1739–1746.

Tritscher Angelika M., Page Samuel W.. The risk assessment paradigm and its application for trichothecenes. Toxicology letters.  2004;153:155–163.

Conková E., Laciaková A., Kovác G., Seidel H.. Fusarial toxins and their role in animal diseases. Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997).  2003;165:214–220.

Moss Maurice O.. Fusarial toxins: are they a cause for concern?   Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997).  2003;165:184–185.

Hussein H. S., Brasel J. M.. Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. Toxicology.  2001;167:101–134.

Peraica M., Domijan A. M.. Contamination of food with mycotoxins and human health. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju.  2001;52:23–35.

Pitt J. I.. Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins. British medical bulletin.  2000;56:184–192.

Peraica M., Radić B., Lucić A., Pavlović M.. Toxic effects of mycotoxins in humans. Bulletin of the World Health Organization.  1999;77:754–766.

Rotter B. A., Prelusky D. B., Pestka J. J.. Toxicology of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin). Journal of toxicology and environmental health.  1996;48:1–34.

Campbell G. D.. Trichothecene mycotoxins–a new entity?  South African medical journal = Suid-Afrikaanse tydskrif vir geneeskunde.  1991;80:361–362.

Schlatter C.. Past and future in mycotoxin toxicology research. Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology.  1990;10:138–144.

Ueno Y., Muto A., Kobayashi J.. Toxicological properties of T-2 toxin and related trichothecenes. Archives belges = Belgisch archief.  1984;Suppl:160–172.

Ueno Y.. Toxicological features of T-2 toxin and related trichothecenes.  Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1984;4.

Ueno Y.. Toxicological features of T-2 toxin and related trichothecenes.  Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1984;4.

Schoental R.. Chronic, including teratogenic and carcinogenic effects of trichothecenes: a short review. Veterinary research communications.  1983;7:165–170.

Jarvis B. B., Midiwo J. O., DeSilva T., Mazzola E. P.. Verrucarin L, a new macrocyclic trichothecene. The Journal of antibiotics.  1981;34:120–121.

Schoental R.. The effects of T-2 mycotoxin. The Veterinary record.  1979;104.

Schoental R.. Health hazards due to T-2 toxins. The Veterinary record.  1977;101:473–474.


Additional Articles

Degen GH, Partosch F, Muñoz K, Gundert-Remy U. Daily uptake of mycotoxins – TDI might not be protective for nursed infants. Toxicol Lett. 2017 Jun 7;277:69-75. PMID: 28602893

Almeida ÉS, de Oliveira D, Hotza D. Characterization of silver nanoparticles produced by biosynthesis mediated by Fusarium oxysporum under different processing conditions. Bioprocess Biosyst Eng. 2017 May 24. PMID: 28540439

Ji J, Zhu P, Cui F, Pi F, Zhang Y, Li Y, Wang J, Sun X. The Antagonistic Effect of Mycotoxins Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on Metabolic Profiling in Serum and Liver of Mice. Toxins (Basel). 2017 Jan 10;9(1). PMID: 28075412

Lei Y, Guanghui Z, Xi W, Yingting W, Xialu L, Fangfang Y, Goldring MB, Xiong G, Lammi MJ. Cellular responses to T-2 toxin and/or deoxynivalenol that induce cartilage damage are not specific to chondrocytes. Sci Rep. 2017 May 22;7(1):2231. PMID: 28533525

Dai Y, Xie H, Xu Y. Evaluation of deoxynivalenol-induced toxic effects on mouse endometrial stromal cells: Cell apoptosis and cell cycle. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017 Jan 29;483(1):572-577. PMID: 27998766

Xie H, Hu J, Xiao C, Dai Y, Ding X, Xu Y. Exploration of ZEA cytotoxicity to mouse endometrial stromal cells and RNA-seq analysis. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2017 Apr;31(4). PMID: 27862621

Hu J, Xu M, Dai Y, Ding X, Xiao C, Ji H, Xu Y. Exploration of Bcl-2 family and caspases-dependent apoptotic signaling pathway in Zearalenone-treated mouse endometrial stromal cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016 Aug 5;476(4):553-9. PMID: 27286704

Abassi H, Ayed-Boussema I, Shirley S, Abid S, Bacha H. Ochratoxin A and T-2 Toxin Induce Clonogenicity and Cell Migration in Human Colon Carcinoma and Fetal Lung Fibroblast Cell Lines. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2016 Mar;30(3):128-35. PMID: 26849850

Zheng W, Huang Q, Pan S, Fan W, Wang G, Yuan Y, Gu J, Liu X, Liu Z, Bian J. Regulation of oncogenes and gap junction intercellular communication during the proliferative response of zearalenone in TM3 cells. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2017 Jul;36(7):701-708. PMID: 27473017

Cirlini M, Mazzeo T, Roncoroni L, Lombardo V, Elli L, Bardella MT, Agostoni C, Doneda L, Brighenti F, Dall’Asta C, Pellegrini N. Are Treated Celiac Patients at Risk for Mycotoxins? An Italian Case-Study. Toxins (Basel). 2016 Dec 28;9(1). PMID: 28036017

Wang X, Zhang Y, Chang Y, Duan D, Sun Z, Guo X. Elevation of IGFBP2 contributes to mycotoxin T-2-induced chondrocyte injury and metabolism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2016 Sep 9;478(1):385-91. PMID: 27416762

Yang JY, Zhang YF, Li YX, Guan GP, Kong XF, Liang AM, Ma KW, Da Li G, Bai XF. Effects of T-2 toxin on the regulation of steroidogenesis in mouse Leydig cells. Toxicol Ind Health. 2016 Oct;32(10):1801-7. PMID: 26085520

Warth B, Del Favero G, Wiesenberger G, Puntscher H, Woelflingseder L, Fruhmann P, Sarkanj B, Krska R, Schuhmacher R, Adam G, Marko D. Identification of a novel human deoxynivalenol metabolite enhancing proliferation of intestinal and urinary bladder cells. Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 23;6:33854. PMID: 27659167

Somoskői B, Kovács M, Cseh S. T-2 mycotoxin slows down the development of mouse blastocysts, decreases their blastomere number and increases chromatin damage. Acta Vet Hung. 2016 Sep;64(3):390-400. PMID: 27653435

Shi W, Tan Y, Wang S, Gardiner DM, De Saeger S, Liao Y, Wang C, Fan Y, Wang Z, Wu A. Mycotoxigenic Potentials of Fusarium Species in Various Culture Matrices Revealed by Mycotoxin Profiling. Toxins (Basel). 2016 Dec 26;9(1). PMID: 28035973

Balamurugan S, Khodifad A. Endogenous Fusarium Endophthalmitis in Diabetes Mellitus. Case Rep Ophthalmol Med. 2016;2016:6736413. PMID: 27990307

Hassan YI, Watts C, Li XZ, Zhou T. A novel Peptide-binding motifs inference approach to understand deoxynivalenolmolecular toxicity. Toxins (Basel). 2015 Jun 2;7(6):1989-2005. PMID: 26043274

Xu J, Jiang C, Zhu W, Wang B, Yan J, Min Z, Geng M, Han Y, Ning Q, Zhang F, Sun J, Meng L, Lu S. NOD2 pathway via RIPK2 and TBK1 is involved in the aberrant catabolism induced by T-2 toxin in chondrocytes. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2015 Sep;23(9):1575-85. PMID: 25917637

Yang R, Wang YM, Zhang LS, Zhang L, Zhao ZM, Zhao J, Peng SQ. Delay of the onset of puberty in female rats by prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. Toxins (Basel). 2015 Nov 9;7(11):4668-83. PMID: 26569305

Mary VS, Valdehita A, Navas JM, Rubinstein HR, Fernández-Cruz ML. Effects of aflatoxin B₁, fumonisin B₁ and their mixture on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor and cytochrome P450 1A induction. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Jan;75:104-11. PMID: 25449202

Zhou HR, Pestka JJ. Deoxynivalenol (Vomitoxin)-Induced Cholecystokinin and Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Release in the STC-1 Enteroendocrine Cell Model Is Mediated by Calcium-Sensing Receptor and Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 Channel. Toxicol Sci. 2015 Jun;145(2):407-17. PMID: 25787141

Sandmeyer LS, Vujanovic V, Petrie L, Campbell JR, Bauer BS, Allen AL, Grahn BH. Optic neuropathy in a herd of beef cattle in Alberta associated with consumption of moldy corn. Can Vet J. 2015 Mar;56(3):249-56. PMID: 25750444

Loiseau N, Polizzi A, Dupuy A, Therville N, Rakotonirainy M, Loy J, Viadere JL, Cossalter AM, Bailly JD, Puel O, Kolf-Clauw M, Bertrand-Michel J, Levade T, Guillou H, Oswald IP. New insights into the organ-specific adverse effects of fumonisin B1: comparison between lung and liver. Arch Toxicol. 2015 Sep;89(9):1619-29. PMID: 25155190

Pizzo F, Caloni F, Schutz LF, Totty ML, Spicer LJ. Individual and combined effects of deoxynivalenol and α-zearalenol on cell proliferation and steroidogenesis of granulosa cells in cattle. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Nov;40(3):722-8. PMID: 26425942

Aupanun S, Poapolathep S, Imsilp K, Prapong T, Poapolathep A. Oral exposure of fusarenon-X induced apoptosis in Peyer’s patches, thymus, and spleen of mice. Res Vet Sci. 2015 Oct;102:217-22. PMID: 26412547

Li L, Wu X, Guan H, Mao B, Wang H, Yuan X, Chu Y, Sun J, Ge RS. Zearalenone Inhibits Rat and Human 11β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 2. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:283530. PMID: 26798634

Poersch AB, Trombetta F, Souto NS, de Oliveira Lima C, Braga AC, Dobrachinski F, Ribeiro LR, Soares FA, Fighera MR, Royes LF, Oliveira MS, Furian AF. Fumonisin B1 facilitates seizures induced by pentylenetetrazol in mice. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015 Sep-Oct;51:61-7. PMID: 26342287

Abysique A, Tardivel C, Troadec JD, Félix B. The Food Contaminant Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Inhibits the Swallowing Reflex in Anaesthetized Rats. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 20;10(7):e0133355. PMID: 26192767

Arunachalam Chanemougasoundharam, Doohan Fiona M.. Trichothecene toxicity in eukaryotes: cellular and molecular mechanisms in plants and animals.  Toxicology letters.  2013;217:149–158.

Moretti A., Susca A., Mulé G., Logrieco A. F., Proctor R. H.. Molecular biodiversity of mycotoxigenic fungi that threaten food safety.  International journal of food microbiology.  2013;167:57–66.

Goossens J., Devreese M., Pasmans F., et al. Chronic exposure to the mycotoxin T-2 promotes oral absorption of chlortetracycline in pigs. Journal of veterinary pharmacology and therapeutics.  2013.

Juan-García Ana, Manyes Lara, Ruiz María-José J., Font Guillermina. Applications of flow cytometry to toxicological mycotoxin effects in cultured mammalian cells: a review. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2013;56:40–59.

Zhao Li, Liu Li, Wang Nan, Wang Shu-Jin J., Hu Jing-Chun C., Gao Jin-Ming M.. Potent toxic macrocyclic trichothecenes from the marine-derived fungus Myrothecium verrucaria Hmp-F73. Natural product communications.  2011;6:1915–1916.

Shen Li, Wang Jian Shou S., Shen Hai Jun J., Song Yong Chun C., Tan Ren Xiang X.. A new cytotoxic trichothecene macrolide from the endophyte Myrothecium roridum. Planta medica.  2010;76:1004–1006.

Ansari Khairul I., Hussain Imran, Das Hriday K., Mandal Subhrangsu S.. Overexpression of human histone methylase MLL1 upon exposure to a food contaminant mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol. The FEBS journal.  2009;276:3299–3307.

Fragaki Georgia, Stefanaki Irine, Dais Photis, Mikros Emmanuel. Conformational properties of the macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin verrucarin A in solution. Magnetic resonance in chemistry : MRC.  2008;46:1102–1111.

Boermans Herman J., Leung Maxwell C.. Mycotoxins and the pet food industry: toxicological evidence and risk assessment. International journal of food microbiology.  2007;119:95–102.

Wollenhaupt Karin, Tomek W., Tiemann Ute. Comparison of the molecular effects of the mycotoxins beta-zearalenol and deoxynivalenol in porcine endometrial cells–a review. Acta veterinaria Hungarica.  2007;55:123–133.

Xu Jinzhong, Takasaki Azusa, Kobayashi Hisayoshi, et al. Four new macrocyclic trichothecenes from two strains of marine-derived fungi of the genus Myrothecium. The Journal of antibiotics.  2006;59:451–455.

Yu Neng-Jiang J., Guo Shun-Xing X., Lu Hai-Yan Y.. Cytotoxic macrocyclic trichothecenes from the mycelia of Calcarisporium arbuscula Preuss.  Journal of Asian natural products research.  2002;4:179–183.

Abbas H. K., Johnson B. B., Shier W. T., Tak H., Jarvis B. B., Boyette C. D.. Phytotoxicity and mammalian cytotoxicity of macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins from Myrothecium verrucaria. Phytochemistry.  2002;59:309–313.

Peng S., Dong J., Yang J.. Studies on relationship between toxicity of trichothecene toxin T-2 and its structure. Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine].  1996;30:141–143.

Vesonder R. F., Logrieco A., Bottalico A., Altomare C., Peterson S. W.. Fusarium species associated with banana fruit rot and their potential toxigenicity. Mycotoxin research.  1995;11:93–98.

Wang Z. G., Feng J. N., Tong Z.. Human toxicosis caused by moldy rice contaminated with fusarium and T-2 toxin. Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES.  1993;6:65–70.

Feng J. N., Wang Z. G.. Food poisoning caused by mouldy rice contaminated with Fusarium and T-2 toxin. Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine].  1992;26:284–286.

Glashkina L. M., Sergeenko N. G., Goncharov N. V.. Mechanism of the toxic effect of T-2 toxin. Gigiena i sanitariia.  1992:45–47.

Beasley V. R., Lambert R. J.. The apparently minimal hazard posed to human consumers of products from animals fed trichothecene-contaminated grains. Veterinary and human toxicology.  1990;32 Suppl:27–39.

Richardson K. E., Hamilton P. B.. Comparative toxicity of scirpentriol and its acetylated derivatives. Poultry science.  1990;69:397–402.

Schiefer H. B., Hancock D. S., Jarvis B. B.. Toxicology of novel macrocyclic trichothecenes, baccharinoid B4, myrotoxin B, and roritoxin B.  Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A.  1989;36:152–160.

Robbana-Barnat S., Lafarge-Frayssinet C., Frayssinet C.. Use of cell cultures for predicting the biological effects of mycotoxins. Cell biology and toxicology.  1989;5:217–226.

Holt P. S., Buckley S., Deloach J. R.. Detection of the lethal effects of T-2 mycotoxin on cells using a rapid colorimetric viability assay.  Toxicology letters.  1987;39:301–312.

Hadidane R., Roger-Regnault C., Bouattour H., et al. Correlation between alimentary mycotoxin contamination and specific diseases. Human toxicology.  1985;4:491–501.

Yoshizawa T., Morooka N.. Comparative studies on microbial and chemical modifications of trichothecene mycotoxins. Applied microbiology.  1975;30:38–43.