Fusarium Literature – Animal Studies




Broekaert N, Devreese M, van Bergen T, Schauvliege S, De Boevre M, De Saeger S, Vanhaecke L, Berthiller F, Michlmayr H, Malachová A, Adam G, Vermeulen A, Croubels S. In vivo contribution of deoxynivalenol-3-β-D-glucoside to deoxynivalenol exposure in broiler chickens and pigs: oral bioavailability, hydrolysis and toxicokinetics. Arch Toxicol. 2017 Feb;91(2):699-712. PMID: 27100115

Döll Susanne, Dänicke Sven. The Fusarium toxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZON) in animal feeding. Preventive veterinary medicine.  2011;102:132–145.

Jarvis B. B., Wang S., Cox C., et al. Brazilian Baccharis toxins: livestock poisoning and the isolation of macrocyclic trichothecene glucosides.  Natural toxins.  1996;4:58–71.

Cheeke P. R.. Endogenous toxins and mycotoxins in forage grasses and their effects on livestock. Journal of animal science.  1995;73:909–918.

Schiefer H. B.. Mycotoxicoses of domestic animals and their diagnosis.  Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology.  1990;68:987–990.

Trenholm H. L., Hamilton R. M., Friend D. W., Thompson B. K., Hartin K. E.. Feeding trials with vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol)-contaminated wheat: effects on swine, poultry, and dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  1984;185:527–531.

Jodczyk K. J.. [Effect of nitrogen derivative of verrucarin E, VER-I, on biology and development of morphological, histochemical and histoenzymatic changes in experimental neoplasms in animals]. Patologia polska.  1984;35:349–364.

Trenholm H. L., Cochrane W. P., Cohen H., et al. Survey of vomitoxin contamination of 1980 Ontario white winter wheat crop: results of survey and feeding trials. Journal – Association of Official Analytical Chemists.  1983;66:92–97.

Pier A. C., Richard J. L., Cysewski S. J.. Implications of mycotoxins in animal disease. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.  1980;176:719–724.

Harwig J., Munro I. C.. Mycotoxins of possible importance in diseases of Canadian farm animals. The Canadian veterinary journal. La revue vétérinaire canadienne.  1975;16:125–141.



Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Hametner C, Nagl V, Fiby I, Macheiner L, Winkler J, Dänicke S, Clark E, Pestka JJ, Berthiller F. Glucuronidation of deoxynivalenol (DON) by different animal species: identification of iso-DON glucuronides and iso-deepoxy-DON glucuronides as novel DON metabolites in pigs, rats, mice, and cows. Arch Toxicol. 2017 Jun 21. PMID: 28638985

Gajęcka M, Tarasiuk M, Zielonka Ł, Dąbrowski M, Nicpoń J, Baranowski M, Gajęcki MT. Changes in the metabolic profile and body weight of pre-pubertal gilts during prolonged monotonic exposure to low doses of zearalenone and deoxynivalenol. Toxicon. 2017 Jan;125:32-43. PMID: 27840141

Dänicke S, Winkler J, Meyer U, Frahm J, Kersten S. Haematological, clinical-chemical and immunological consequences of feeding Fusarium toxin contaminated diets to early lactating dairy cows. Mycotoxin Res. 2017 Feb;33(1):1-13. PMID: 27830510

Ji J, Zhu P, Cui F, Pi F, Zhang Y, Sun X. The disorder metabolic profiling in kidney and spleen of mice induced by mycotoxins deoxynivalenol through gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Chemosphere. 2017 Aug;180:267-274. PMID: 28411543

Golder HM, Moss N, Rogers G, Jackson B, Gannon N, Wong P, Lean IJ. Acute photosensitisation and mortality in a herd of dairy cattle in Tasmania. N Z Vet J. 2017 Jan;65(1):39-45. PMID: 27593392

Kovács M, Pósa R, Tuboly T, Donkó T, Repa I, Tossenberger J, Szabó-Fodor J, Stoev S, Magyar T. Feed exposure to FB1 can aggravate pneumonic damages in pigs provoked by P. multocida. Res Vet Sci. 2016 Oct;108:38-46. PMID: 27663368

Bondy GS, Coady L, Curran I, Caldwell D, Armstrong C, Aziz SA, Nunnikhoven A, Gannon AM, Liston V, Shenton J, Mehta R. Effects of chronic deoxynivalenol exposure on p53 heterozygous and p53 homozygous mice. Food Chem Toxicol. 2016 Oct;96:24-34. PMID: 27456127

Lessard M, Savard C, Deschene K, Lauzon K, Pinilla VA, Gagnon CA, Lapointe J, Guay F, Chorfi Y. Impact of deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminated feed on intestinal integrity and immune response in swine. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Jun;80:7-16. PMID: 25701311

Pizzo F, Caloni F, Schreiber NB, Cortinovis C, Spicer LJ. In vitro effects of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone major metabolites alone and combined, on cell proliferation, steroid production and gene expression in bovine small-follicle granulosa cells. Toxicon. 2016 Jan;109:70-83. PMID: 26657070

Dänicke S, Meyer U, Winkler J, Ulrich S, Frahm J, Kersten S, Valenta H, Rehage J, Häussler S, Sauerwein H, Locher L. Haematological and immunological adaptations of non-pregnant, non-lactating dairy cows to a high-energetic diet containing mycotoxins. Arch Anim Nutr. 2016;70(1):1-16. PMID: 26654380

Jovaišienė J, Bakutis B, Baliukonienė V, Gerulis G. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins effects on dairy cow health, performance and the efficacy of Anti-Mycotoxin Additive. Pol J Vet Sci. 2016;19(1):79-87. PMID: 27096791

Saint-Cyr MJ, Perrin-Guyomard A, Manceau J, Houée P, Delmas JM, Rolland JG, Laurentie M. Risk Assessment of Deoxynivalenol by Revisiting Its Bioavailability in Pig and Rat Models to Establish Which Is More Suitable. Toxins (Basel). 2015 Dec 1;7(12):5167-81. PMID: 26633505

Albonico M, Schütz LF, Caloni F, Cortinovis C, Spicer LJ. Toxicological effects of fumonisin B1 alone and in combination with other fusariotoxins on bovine granulosa cells. Toxicon. 2016 Aug;118:47-53. PMID: 27108238

Szabó A, Szabó-Fodor J, Fébel H, Mézes M, Bajzik G, Kovács M. Oral administration of fumonisin B1 and T-2 individually and in combination affects hepatic total and mitochondrial membrane lipid profile of rabbits. Physiol Int. 2016 Sep;103(3):321-333. PMID: 28229635

Pósa R, Stoev S, Kovács M, Donkó T, Repa I, Magyar T. A comparative pathological finding in pigs exposed to fumonisin B1 and/or Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Toxicol Ind Health. 2016 Jun;32(6):998-1012. PMID: 25107460

Obremski K, Gonkowski S, Wojtacha P. Zearalenone-induced changes in the lymphoid tissue and mucosal nerve fibers in the porcine ileum. Pol J Vet Sci. 2015;18(2):357-65. PMID: 26172186

Wu L, Liao P, He L, Ren W, Yin J, Duan J, Li T. Growth performance, serum biochemical profile, jejunal morphology, and the expression of nutrients transporter genes in deoxynivalenol (DON)- challenged growing pigs. BMC Vet Res. 2015 Jul 3;11:144. PMID: 26138080

Śliżewska K, Nowak A, Piotrowska M, Żakowskax Z, Gajęcka M, Zielonka Ł, Gajęcki M. Cecal enzyme activity in gilts following experimentally induced Fusariummycotoxicosis. Pol J Vet Sci. 2015;18(1):191-7. PMID: 25928927

Brzuzan P, Woźny M, Wolińska-Nizioł L, Piasecka A, Florczyk M, Jakimiuk E, Góra M, Łuczyński MK, Gajecki M. MicroRNA expression profiles in liver and colon of sexually immature gilts after exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins. Pol J Vet Sci. 2015;18(1):29-38. PMID: 25928907

Kong C, Shin SY, Park CS, Kim BG. Effects of Feeding Barley Naturally Contaminated with Fusarium Mycotoxins on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, and Blood Chemistry of Gilts and Growth Recoveries by Feeding a Non-contaminated Diet. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci. 2015 May;28(5):662-70. PMID: 25715687

Winkler J, Kersten S, Meyer U, Stinshoff H, Locher L, Rehage J, Wrenzycki C, Engelhardt UH, Dänicke S. Diagnostic opportunities for evaluation of the exposure of dairy cows to the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN): reliability of blood plasma, bile and follicular fluid as indicators. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl). 2015 Oct;99(5):847-55. PMID: 25556890

Jonsson M, Atosuo J, Jestoi M, Nathanail AV, Kokkonen UM, Anttila M, Koivisto P, Lilius EM, Peltonen K. Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study of moniliformin in rats. Toxicol Lett. 2015 Feb 17;233(1):38-44. PMID: 25482064

Demirel G, Alpertunga B, Ozden S. Role of fumonisin B1 on DNA methylation changes in rat kidney and liver cells. Pharm Biol. 2015;53(9):1302-10. PMID: 25858139

Hahn I, Nagl V, Schwartz-Zimmermann HE, Varga E, Schwarz C, Slavik V, Reisinger N, Malachová A, Cirlini M, Generotti S, Dall’Asta C, Krska R, Moll WD, Berthiller F. Effects of orally administered fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), partially hydrolysed FB₁, hydrolysed FB₁ and N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) FB₁ on the sphingolipid metabolism in rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015 Feb;76:11-8. PMID: 25475052

Gerez JR, Pinton P, Callu P, Grosjean F, Oswald IP, Bracarense AP. Deoxynivalenol alone or in combination with nivalenol and zearalenone induce systemic histological changes in pigs. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2015 Feb;67(2):89-98. PMID: 25467749

Mukherjee D, Royce SG, Alexander JA, Buckley B, Isukapalli SS, Bandera EV, Zarbl H, Georgopoulos PG. Physiologically-based toxicokinetic modeling of zearalenone and its metabolites: application to the Jersey girl study. PLoS One. 2014 Dec 4;9(12):e113632. PMID: 25474635

Stopa E, Gajęcka M, Babińska I, Zielonka L, Gajęcki M. The effect of experimental exposure to low doses of zearalenone on uterine histology and morphometry in prepubertal bitches. Theriogenology. 2014 Sep 1;82(4):537-45. PMID: 25001979

Chandratre GA, Telang AG, Badgujar PC, Raut SS, Sharma AK. Toxicopathological alterations induced by high dose dietary T-2 mycotoxin and its residue detection in Wistar rats. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2014 Jul;67(1):124-38. PMID: 24553812

Tardivel C, Airault C, Djelloul M, Guillebaud F, Barbouche R, Troadec JD, Gaigé S, Dallaporta M. The food born mycotoxin deoxynivalenol induces low-grade inflammation in mice in the absence of observed-adverse effects. Toxicol Lett. 2015 Feb 3;232(3):601-11. PMID: 25549547

Savard C, Pinilla V, Provost C, Segura M, Gagnon CA, Chorfi Y. In vitro effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) mycotoxin on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus replication. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Mar;65:219-26. PMID: 24394488

Savard C, Pinilla V, Provost C, Gagnon CA, Chorfi Y. In vivo effect of deoxynivalenol (DON) naturally contaminated feed on porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. Vet Microbiol. 2014 Dec 5;174(3-4):419-26. PMID: 25465662

Boeira SP, Filho CB, Del’Fabbro L, Roman SS, Royes LF, Fighera MR, Jessé CR, Oliveira MS, Furian AF. Damage induced by acute zearalenone administration in male Swiss mice. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2014 Jul;66(4):179-85. PMID: 24503513

Saengtienchai T, Poapolathep S, Isariyodom S, Ikenaka Y, Ishizuka M, Poapolathep A. Toxicokinetics and tissue depletion of Fusarenon-X and its metabolite nivalenol in piglets. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Apr;66:307-12. PMID: 24508584

Brezina U, Rempe I, Kersten S, Valenta H, Humpf HU, Dänicke S. Diagnosis of intoxications of piglets fed with Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize by the analysis of mycotoxin residues in serum, liquor and urine with LC-MS/MS.Arch Anim Nutr. 2014 Dec;68(6):425-47. PMID: 25355041

Dänicke S, Keese C, Meyer U, Starke A, Kinoshita A, Rehage J. Zearalenone (ZEN) metabolism and residue concentrations in physiological specimens of dairy cows exposed long-term to ZEN-contaminated diets differing in concentrate feed proportions. Arch Anim Nutr. 2014 Dec;68(6):492-506. PMID: 25348458

Cheng G, Liu C, Wang X, Ma H, Pan Y, Huang L, Hao H, Dai M, Yuan Z. Structure-function analysis of porcine cytochrome P450 3A29 in the hydroxylation of T-2 toxin as revealed by docking and mutagenesis studies. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 3;9(9):e106769. PMID: 25184434

Winkler J, Kersten S, Meyer U, Engelhardt U, Dänicke S. Residues of zearalenone (ZEN), deoxynivalenol (DON) and their metabolites in plasma of dairy cows fed Fusarium contaminated maize and their relationships to performance parameters. Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Mar;65:196-204. PMID: 24361404

Li S, Blain EJ, Cao J, Caterson B, Duance VC. Effects of the mycotoxin nivalenol on bovine articular chondrocyte metabolism in vitro. PLoS One. 2014 Oct 15;9(10):e109536. PMID: 25329658

Manyes L, Escrivá L, Serrano AB, Rodríguez-Carrasco Y, Tolosa J, Meca G, Font G. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2014 Mar;24(3):179-90. PMID: 24329503

Kovács Melinda, Tornyos Gábor, Matics Zsolt, et al. Effect of chronic T-2 toxin exposure in rabbit bucks, determination of the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL). Animal reproduction science.  2013;137:245–252.

Kouadio JH, Moukha S, Brou K, Gnakri D. Lipid metabolism disorders, lymphocytes cells death, and renal toxicity induced by very low levels of deoxynivalenol and fumonisin b1 alone or in combination following 7 days oral administration to mice. Toxicol Int. 2013 Sep;20(3):218-23. PMID: 24403731

Ferreras M. C., Benavides J., García-Pariente C., et al. Acute and chronic disease associated with naturally occurring T-2 mycotoxicosis in sheep.  Journal of comparative pathology.  2013;148:236–242.

Rempe Inga, Brezina Ulrike, Kersten Susanne, Dänicke Sven. Effects of a Fusarium toxin-contaminated maize treated with sodium metabisulphite, methylamine and calcium hydroxide in diets for female piglets. Archives of animal nutrition.  2013;67:314–329.

Marczuk J., Obremski K., Lutnicki K., Gajecka M., Gajecki M.. Zearalenone and deoxynivalenol mycotoxicosis in dairy cattle herds. Polish journal of veterinary sciences.  2012;15:365–372.

Caloni Francesca, Cortinovis Cristina. Effects of fusariotoxins in the equine species. Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997).  2010;186:157–161.

Mikami Osamu, Yamaguchi Hiroyuki, Murata Hideo, Nakajima Yasuyuki, Miyazaki Shigeru. Induction of apoptotic lesions in liver and lymphoid tissues and modulation of cytokine mRNA expression by acute exposure to deoxynivalenol in piglets. Journal of veterinary science.  2010;11:107–113.

Corps Kara N., Islam Zahidul, Pestka James J., Harkema Jack R.. Neurotoxic, inflammatory, and mucosecretory responses in the nasal airways of mice repeatedly exposed to the macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin roridin A: dose-response and persistence of injury. Toxicologic pathology.  2010;38:429–451.

Jakovac-Strajn B., Vengust A., Pestevsek U.. Effects of a deoxynivalenol-contaminated diet on the reproductive performance and immunoglobulin concentrations in pigs. The Veterinary record.  2009;165:713–718.

Zielonka ł., Wiśniewska M., Gajecka M., Obremski K., Gajecki M.. Influence of low doses of deoxynivalenol on histopathology of selected organs of pigs. Polish journal of veterinary sciences.  2009;12:89–95.

Takahashi Miwa, Shibutani Makoto, Sugita-Konishi Yoshiko, et al. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of nivalenol, a trichothecene mycotoxin, in F344 rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2008;46:125–135.

Sugita-Konishi Y., Kubosaki A., Takahashi M., et al. Nivalenol and the targeting of the female reproductive system as well as haematopoietic and immune systems in rats after 90-day exposure through the diet. Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment.  2008;25:1118–1127.

Chen Feng, Ma Yulin, Xue Chunyi, et al. The combination of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone at permitted feed concentrations causes serious physiological effects in young pigs. Journal of veterinary science.  2008;9:39–44.

Gutzwiller A., Czeglédi L., Stoll P., Bruckner L.. Effects of Fusarium toxins on growth, humoral immune response and internal organs in weaner pigs, and the efficacy of apple pomace as an antidote. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition.  2007;91:432–438.

Korosteleva S. N., Smith T. K., Boermans H. J.. Effects of feedborne Fusarium mycotoxins on the performance, metabolism, and immunity of dairy cows.  Journal of dairy science.  2007;90:3867–3873.

Döll Susanne, Goyarts Tanja, Tiemann Ute, Dänicke Sven. Practically relevant concentrations of deoxynivalenol in diets for growing-finishing pigs offered as mash or pellets. Archives of animal nutrition.  2007;61:247–265.

Accensi F., Pinton P., Callu P., et al. Ingestion of low doses of deoxynivalenol does not affect hematological, biochemical, or immune responses of piglets. Journal of animal science.  2006;84:1935–1942.

Cetin Y., Bullerman L. B.. Cytotoxicity of Fusarium mycotoxins to mammalian cell cultures as determined by the MTT bioassay. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2005;43:755–764.

Gouze M. E., Laffitte J., Dedieu G., et al. Individual and combined effects of low oral doses of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol in mice. Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France).  2005;51 Suppl.

Raymond S. L., Smith T. K., Swamy H. V.. Effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, metabolism, and indices of athletic performance of exercised horses. Journal of animal science.  2005;83:1267–1273.

Böhm J., Razzazi E.. Effects of feeding deoxynivalenol contaminated wheat to piglets. Mycotoxin research.  2003;19:176–179.

Hughes D. M., Gahl M. J., Graham C. H., Grieb S. L.. Overt signs of toxicity to dogs and cats of dietary deoxynivalenol. Journal of animal science.  1999;77:693–700.

Banotai C., Greene-McDowelle D. M., Azcona-Olivera J. I., Pestka J. J.. Effects of intermittent vomitoxin exposure on body weight, immunoglobulin levels and haematuria in the B6C3F1 mouse. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1999;37:343–350.

Johnson P. J., Casteel S. W., Messer N. T.. Effect of feeding deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin)-contaminated barley to horses. Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation.  1997;9:219–221.

Velazco V., Faifer G. C., Godoy H. M.. Differential effects of T-2 toxin on bone marrow and spleen erythropoiesis in mice. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1996;34:371–375.

Harvey R. B., Edrington T. S., Kubena L. F., Elissalde M. H., Corrier D. E., Rottinghaus G. E.. Effect of aflatoxin and diacetoxyscirpenol in ewe lambs. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology.  1995;54:325–330.

Rotter B. A., Thompson B. K., Lessard M., Trenholm H. L., Tryphonas H.. Influence of low-level exposure to Fusarium mycotoxins on selected immunological and hematological parameters in young swine. Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1994;23:117–124.

Prelusky D. B., Gerdes R. G., Underhill K. L., Rotter B. A., Jui P. Y., Trenholm H. L.. Effects of low-level dietary deoxynivalenol on haematological and clinical parameters of the pig. Natural toxins.  1994;2:97–104.

Szilágyi M., Fekete S., Huszenicza G. Y., Albert M.. Biochemical and physiological effects of long-term sublethal T-2 toxin feeding in rabbits. Acta biologica Hungarica.  1994;45:69–76.

Charmley E., Trenholm H. L., Thompson B. K., et al. Influence of level of deoxynivalenol in the diet of dairy cows on feed intake, milk production, and its composition. Journal of dairy science.  1993;76:3580–3587.

Gulick P. J.. Could mycotoxins in Dutch pig-farming explain certain management problems? Tijdschrift voor diergeneeskunde.  1993;118.

Harvey R. B., Kubena L. F., Elissalde M. H., et al. Cocontamination of swine diets by aflatoxin and diacetoxyscirpenol. Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation.  1991;3:155–160.

Creasia D. A., Thurman J. D., Wannemacher R. W., Bunner D. L.. Acute inhalation toxicity of T-2 mycotoxin in the rat and guinea pig. Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1990;14:54–59.

Palyusik M., Harrach B., Horvath G., Mirocha C. J.. Experimental fusariotoxicosis of swine produced by zearalenone and T-2 toxins.  Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology.  1990;10:52–55.

Middlebrook J. L., Leatherman D. L.. Specific association of T-2 toxin with mammalian cells. Biochemical pharmacology.  1989;38:3093–3102.

Yamamura H., Kobayashi T., Ryu J. C., et al. Subchronic feeding studies with nivalenol in C57BL/6 mice. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1989;27:585–590.

Middlebrook J. L., Leatherman D. L.. Differential association of T-2 and T-2 tetraol with mammalian cells. The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics.  1989;250:860–866.

Ohtsubo K., Ryu J. C., Nakamura K., et al. Chronic toxicity of nivalenol in female mice: a 2-year feeding study with Fusarium nivale Fn 2B-moulded rice. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1989;27:591–598.

Bergmann F., Yarom R., Yagen B.. Comparison of the toxicity of two trichothecenes applied topically to brain and liver of rats. Toxicology letters.  1989;48:49–56.

Borison H. L., Goodheart M. L.. Neural factors in acute emetic, cardiovascular, and respiratory effects of T-2 toxin in cats. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1989;101:399–413.

Glávits R., Ványi A., Fekete S., Tamás J.. Acute toxicological experiment of T-2 toxin in rabbits. Acta veterinaria Hungarica.  1989;37:75–79.

Niyo K. A., Richard J. L., Niyo Y., Tiffany L. H.. Pathologic, hematologic, and serologic changes in rabbits given T-2 mycotoxin orally and exposed to aerosols of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. American journal of veterinary research.  1988;49:2151–2160.

Thurman J. D., Creasia D. A., Trotter R. W.. Mycotoxicosis caused by aerosolized T-2 toxin administered to female mice. American journal of veterinary research.  1988;49:1928–1931.

Ryu J. C., Ohtsubo K., Izumiyama N., et al. The acute and chronic toxicities of nivalenol in mice. Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1988;11:38–47.

Pang V. F., Lambert R. J., Felsburg P. J., Beasley V. R., Buck W. B., Haschek W. M.. Experimental T-2 toxicosis in swine following inhalation exposure: clinical signs and effects on hematology, serum biochemistry, and immune response. Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1988;11:100–109.

Bauer J.. Disease and depression of productivity in raising swine caused by mycotoxins. Tierärztliche Praxis. Supplement.  1988;3:40–47.

Schiefer H. B., Rousseaux C. G., Hancock D. S., Blakley B. R.. Effects of low-level long-term oral exposure to T-2 toxin in CD-1 mice. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1987;25:593–601.

Hewetson J. F., Pace J. G., Beheler J. E.. Detection and quantitation of T-2 mycotoxin in rat organs by radioimmunoassay. Journal – Association of Official Analytical Chemists.  1987;70:654–657.

Pang V. F., Lambert R. J., Felsburg P. J., Beasley V. R., Buck W. B., Haschek W. M.. Experimental T-2 toxicosis in swine following inhalation exposure: effects on pulmonary and systemic immunity, and morphologic changes.  Toxicologic pathology.  1987;15:308–319.

Pang V. F., Swanson S. P., Beasley V. R., Buck W. B., Haschek W. M.. The toxicity of T-2 toxin in swine following topical application. I. Clinical signs, pathology, and residue concentrations. Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1987;9:41–49.

Pang V. F., Lorenzana R. M., Beasley V. R., Buck W. B., Haschek W. M.. Experimental T-2 toxicosis in swine. III. Morphologic changes following intravascular administration of T-2 toxin. Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1987;8:298–309.

Forsell J. H., Jensen R., Tai J. H., Witt M., Lin W. S., Pestka J. J.. Comparison of acute toxicities of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol in the B6C3F1 mouse. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1987;25:155–162.

Creasia D. A., Thurman J. D., Jones L. J., et al. Acute inhalation toxicity of T-2 mycotoxin in mice. Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1987;8:230–235.

Fairhurst S., Marrs T. C., Parker H. C., Scawin J. W., Swanston D. W.. Acute toxicity of T2 toxin in rats, mice, guinea pigs, and pigeons.  Toxicology.  1987;43:31–49.

Rensburg D. F., Thiel P. G., Jaskiewicz K.. Short-term effects of two fusarium toxins, diacetoxyscirpenol and neosolaniol monoacetate, in male Wistar rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1987;25:767–771.

Milczewski K.. Toxicity of epoxy trichothecenes in cultured mammalian cells. Mycotoxin research.  1987;3:69–76.

Pang V. F., Felsburg P. J., Beasley V. R., Buck W. B., Haschek W. M.. The toxicity of T-2 toxin in swine following topical application. II. Effects on hematology, serum biochemistry, and immune response. Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1987;9:50–59.

Schiefer H. B., Hancock D. S., Bhatti A. R.. Systemic effects of topically applied trichothecenes. I. Comparative study of various trichothecenes in mice. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A.  1986;33:373–383.

Gabal M. A., Awad Y. L., Morcos M. B., Barakat A. M., Malik G.. Fusariotoxicoses of farm animals and mycotoxic leucoencephalomalacia of the equine associated with the finding of trichothecenes in feedstuffs.  Veterinary and human toxicology.  1986;28:207–212.

Arnold D. L., Karpinski K. F., McGuire P. F., et al. A short-term feeding study with deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) using rats. Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1986;6:691–696.

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