Health Effects of Moldy Buildings – Treatments



This page lists medical journal articles discussing the effectiveness of various treatments in helping with symptoms thought to be associated with exposures to moldy buildings.

The Health Effects of Moldy Buildings page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on this topic.


Somppi TL. Non-Thyroidal Illness Syndrome in Patients Exposed to Indoor Air Dampness Microbiota Treated Successfully with Triiodothyronine. Front Immunol. 2017 Aug 7;8:919. PMID: 28824644

A retrospective study was carried out in nine patients with a history of mold exposure, experiencing chronic fatigue, cognitive disorder, and different kinds of hypothyroid symptoms despite provision of levothyroxine (3,5,3′,5′-tetraiodothyronine, LT4) monotherapy. This retrospective study describes the successful treatment of nine patients in whom NTIS was treated with T3-based thyroid hormone. The treatment was based on careful interview, clinical monitoring, and laboratory analysis of serum free T3 (FT3), reverse T3 (rT3) and thyroid-stimulating hormone, free T4, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) values. The ratio of FT3/rT3 was calculated. During the therapy, all nine patients reported improvements in all of the symptom groups. Those who had residual symptoms during T3-based therapy remained exposed to indoor air molds in their work places.


Vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) corrects chronic inflammatory response syndrome (CIRS) acquired following exposure to water-damaged buildings. Shoemaker RC, House D, Ryan JC. Health, 2013: 5(3), 396-401.

Exposure in water-damaged buildings (WDB) to airborne bioaerosols including metabolic products of toxigenic fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes; and inflammagens, can lead to a persistent innate immune inflammatory illness. Here we report an open label trial of 20 patients with refractory CIRS-WDB illness who took replacement VIP (vasal intestinal polypeptide) in a nasal spray for at least 18 months with confirmation of durable efficacy and absence of significant side effects. The trial showed that VIP therapy safely 1) reduced refractory symptoms to equal controls; 2) corrected inflammatory parameters C4a, TGF beta-1, VEGF, MMP9; 3) corrected estradiol, testosterone and 25-OH Vitamin D; 4) returned pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) during exercise to normal; and 5) enhanced quality of life in 100% of trial patients. Subsequent identification of correction of T-regulatory cell levels supports the potential role of VIP in both innate and adaptive immune function.

Ezra N, Dang K, Heuser G. Improvement of attention span and reaction time with hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with toxic injury due to mold exposure. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;30:1–6.  PMID: 20978814 

In this study, 15 subjects who developed an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and slowing of reaction time at the time of exposure to mold toxins were identified. It was found that mold-exposed subjects show statistically significant decreases in attention span and significant increases in reaction time to stimuli compared to controls. After ten sessions of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), a statistically significant improvement was seen in both measures. This preliminary study suggests promising outcomes in treating mold-exposed patients with hyperbaric oxygen


Rea WJ, Pan Y, Griffiths B. The treatment of patients with mycotoxin-induced disease. Toxicol Ind Health. 2009 Oct-Nov;25(9-10):711-4. PMID: 19854821

Twenty-eight incapacitated individuals exposed to molds and mycotoxins were studied and treated with a protocol of cleaning up or changing their environment to be mold free. Injections of the optimum dose of antigens were given as part of the treatment protocol as was oral and intravenous (i.v.) antioxidants; heat depuration (sauna); physical therapy with massage and exercise under environmentally controlled conditions; oxygen therapy at 4-8 L/min for 2 hours with a special wood-grade cellophane reservoir and a glass oxygen container. Of 28 patients, 27 did well and returned to work.


Rogers SA. Lipoic acid as a potential first agent for protection from mycotoxins and treatment of mycotoxicosis. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Aug;58(8):528-32. PMID: 15259433

This suggests potential therapeutic options for the challenging treatment of mycotoxicosis. In this brief review, the author examines the use of lipoic acid as an example of an inexpensive and available nutrient that has been shown to protect against, or reverse, the adverse health effects of mycotoxins.