Health Effects of Moldy Buildings – Antibodies & Allergies



This page lists medical journal articles discussing the relationship between allergies/antibodies and moldy buildings.

The Health Effects of Moldy Buildings page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on this topic.


de Barros Bezerra GF, Haidar DM, da Silva MA, Filho WE, Dos Santos RM, Rosa IG, de Castro Viana GM, Zaror L, Soares Brandão Nascimento Mdo D. IgE serum concentration against airborne fungi in children with respiratory allergies. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2016 Apr 27;12:18. PMID: 27127524

This study evaluated total and specific E immunoglobulin (IgE) antibody concentrations in underage subjects with respiratory allergic diseases. IgE total serum concentration was increased in 97 % of the atopic subjects: 75 % of the subjects presented increased IgE anti-Aspergillus concentrations, 87 % presented IgE anti-Penicillium, 45 % presented IgE anti-Fusarium, and 46 % presented IgE anti-Neurospora. Atopic subjects presented simultaneous IgE total and specific elevations for the tested fungi, possibly due to polysensitization caused by the presence of fungi in all of the areas all year.


Ward MD, Copeland LB, Lehmann J, Doerfler DL, Vesper SJ. Assessing the allergenic potential of molds found in water-damaged homes in a mouse model. Inhal Toxicol. 2014 Jul;26(8):474-84. PMID: 24987979

Certain molds found in significantly higher or lower concentrations in asthmatics’ homes compared to control homes have been categorized as Group 1 (G1) and Group 2 (G2) molds, respectively. These studies along with our previous studies with G1 (Stachybotrys chartarum)/G2 (Penicillium chrysogenum) molds suggest that the G1/G2 categorization is not indicative of allergic potential but they do not preclude this categorization’s utility in determining unhealthy building dampness.


Hsu NY, Wang JY, Su HJ. A dose-dependent relationship between the severity of visible mold growth and IgE levels of pre-school-aged resident children in Taiwan. Indoor Air. 2010 Oct;20(5):392-8. PMID: 20590918

A total of 97 Taiwanese children (4-7 years old) identified from previously established birth-cohort, with information pertaining to indoor environmental conditions after child’s birth, were successfully recruited while sera were concurrently collected for total IgE and specific IgE analysis during clinical visits. Severity of visible mold growth at homes was scaled into three levels accordingly. A statistically significant dose-dependent relationship was found between severity of indoor visible mold growth and total serum IgE levels.


Chirigos MA, Jirillo E. Saliva secretory IgA antibodies against molds and mycotoxins in patients exposed to toxigenic fungi. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2005;27(1):185. PMID: 15803870


Vojdani A, Thrasher JD, Madison RA, Gray MR, Heuser G, Campbell AW. Antibodies to molds and satratoxin in individuals exposed in water-damaged buildings. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Jul;58(7):421-32. PMID: 15143855 

Immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgM, and IgG antibodies against Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, Stachybotrys chartarum, and satratoxin H were determined in the blood of 500 healthy blood donor controls, 500 random patients, and 500 patients with known exposure to molds. The authors concluded that the antibodies studied are specific to mold antigens and mycotoxins, and therefore could be useful in epidemiological and other studies of humans exposed to molds and mycotoxins.


Vojdani A, Campbell AW, Kashanian A, Vojdani E. Antibodies against molds and mycotoxins following exposure to toxigenic fungi in a water-damaged building. Arch Environ Health. 2003 Jun;58(6):324-36. PMID: 14992307

Exposure to molds in water-damaged buildings can cause allergy, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, mucus membrane irritation, and toxicity–alone or in combination. Despite this, significant emphasis has been placed only on Type I allergy and asthma, but not on the other 3 types of allergies. In this study, we sought to evaluate simultaneous measurements of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, IgA, and IgE antibodies against the most common molds, and their mycotoxins, cultured from water-damaged buildings. These differences implied that, overall, the healthy control group was different from the mold-exposed patients for IgG, IgM, and IgA antibodies, but not for the IgE anti-mold antibody. Most patients with high levels of antibodies against various mold antigens also exhibited elevated antibodies against purified mycotoxins, indicating that the patients had been exposed to mold spores and mycotoxins.


Vojdani A, Kashanian A, Vojdani E, Campbell AW. Saliva secretory IgA antibodies against molds and mycotoxins in patients exposed to toxigenic fungi. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2003 Nov;25(4):595-614. PMID: 14686801

The purpose of this study was to evaluate mold-specific salivary IgA in individuals exposed to molds and mycotoxins in a water-damaged building environment. Saliva IgA antibody levels against seven different molds and two mycotoxins were studied in 40 patients exposed to molds and in 40 control subjects. Mold-exposed patients showed significantly higher levels of salivary IgA antibodies against one or more mold species. A majority of patients with high IgA antibodies against molds exhibited elevation in salivary IgA against mycotoxins, as well.


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