Aflatoxin Literature: Metabolism and Clearance



Huuskonen Pasi, Myllynen Päivi, Storvik Markus, Pasanen Markku. The effects of aflatoxin B1 on transporters and steroid metabolizing enzymes in JEG-3 cells. Toxicology letters. 2013;218:200–206.

Gao Shang Shang S., Chen Xiao Yan Y., Zhu Ri Zhe Z., Choi Byung-Min M., Kim Sun Jun J., Kim Bok-Ryang R.. Dual effects of phloretin on aflatoxin B1 metabolism: activation and detoxification of aflatoxin B1. BioFactors (Oxford, England). 2012;38:34–43.

Diaz G. J., Murcia H. W., Cepeda S. M.. Bioactivation of aflatoxin B1 by turkey liver microsomes: responsible cytochrome P450 enzymes. British poultry science. 2010;51:828–837.

Diaz G. J., Murcia H. W., Cepeda S. M.. Cytochrome P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in chickens and quail. Poultry science. 2010;89:2461–2469.

Rawal Sumit, Yip Shirley S., Coulombe Roger A.. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of cytochrome P450 3A37 from turkey liver with high aflatoxin B1 epoxidation activity. Chemical research in toxicology. 2010;23:1322–1329.

Diaz Gonzalo J., Murcia Hansen W., Cepeda Sandra M., Boermans Herman J.. The role of selected cytochrome P450 enzymes on the bioactivation of aflatoxin B1 by duck liver microsomes. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A. 2010;39:279–285.

Roebuck Bill D., Johnson Denise N., Sutter Carrie Hayes H., et al. Transgenic expression of aflatoxin aldehyde reductase (AKR7A1) modulates aflatoxin B1 metabolism but not hepatic carcinogenesis in the rat. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2009;109:41–49.

Di Yuan Ming M., Chow Vivian Deh-Wei D., Yang Li-Ping P., Zhou Shu-Feng F.. Structure, function, regulation and polymorphism of human cytochrome P450 2A6. Current drug metabolism. 2009;10:754–780.

Meissonnier Guylaine M., Laffitte Joelle, Loiseau Nicolas, et al. Selective impairment of drug-metabolizing enzymes in pig liver during subchronic dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2007;45:2145–2154.

Herwaarden Antonius E., Wagenaar Els, Karnekamp Barbara, Merino Gracia, Jonker Johan W., Schinkel Alfred H.. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) reduces systemic exposure of the dietary carcinogens aflatoxin B1, IQ and Trp-P-1 but also mediates their secretion into breast milk. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:123–130.

Yip Shirley S., Coulombe Roger A.. Molecular cloning and expression of a novel cytochrome p450 from turkey liver with aflatoxin b1 oxidizing activity. Chemical research in toxicology. 2006;19:30–37.

Mykkänen Hannu, Zhu Huilian, Salminen Eeva, et al. Fecal and urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1 metabolites (AFQ1, AFM1 and AFB-N7-guanine) in young Chinese males. International journal of cancer. Journal international du cancer. 2005;115:879–884.

Wang-Buhler J. L., Lee S. J., Chung W. G., et al. CYP2K6 from zebrafish (Danio rerio): cloning, mapping, developmental/tissue expression, and aflatoxin B1 activation by baculovirus expressed enzyme. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP. 2005;140:207–219.

Park Je Won W., Lee Chan, Kim Young-Bae B.. Fate of aflatoxin B1 during the cooking of Korean polished rice. Journal of food protection. 2005;68:1431–1434.

Henry Kevin M., Townsend Craig A.. Ordering the reductive and cytochrome P450 oxidative steps in demethylsterigmatocystin formation yields general insights into the biosynthesis of aflatoxin and related fungal metabolites. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 2005;127:3724–3733.

Long Xi-dai D., Ma Yun, Wei Yi-ping P., Deng Zhuo-lin L.. [Study on the detoxication gene gstM1-gstT1-null and susceptibility to aflatoxin B1 related hepatocellular carcinoma in Guangxi]. Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi. 2005;26:777–781.

Bingham A. K., Huebner H. J., Phillips T. D., Bauer J. E.. Identification and reduction of urinary aflatoxin metabolites in dogs. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2004;42:1851–1858.

McMillian Michael, Nie Alex Y., Parker J. Brandon, et al. A gene expression signature for oxidant stress/reactive metabolites in rat liver. Biochemical pharmacology. 2004;68:2249–2261.

Ellis Elizabeth M., Slattery Cara M., Hayes John D.. Characterization of the rat aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase gene, AKR7A1. Structure and chromosomal localization of AKR7A1 as well as identification of antioxidant response elements in the gene promoter. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:727–737.

Mishra H. N., Das Chitrangada. A review on biological control and metabolism of aflatoxin. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition. 2003;43:245–264.

Atef M., Youssef S. A., El-Eanna H. A., El-Maaz A. A.. Influence of aflatoxin B1 on the kinetic disposition, systemic bioavailability and tissue residues of doxycycline in chickens. British poultry science. 2002;43:528–532.

Guengerich F. P., Cai H., McMahon M., et al. Reduction of aflatoxin B1 dialdehyde by rat and human aldo-keto reductases. Chemical research in toxicology. 2001;14:727–737.

O’connor T., Ireland L. S., Harrison D. J., Hayes J. D.. Major differences exist in the function and tissue-specific expression of human aflatoxin B1 aldehyde reductase and the principal human aldo-keto reductase AKR1 family members. The Biochemical journal. 1999;343 Pt 2:487–504.

Ueng Y. F., Shimada T., Yamazaki H., Peterguengerich F.. Aflatoxin B1 oxidation by human cytochrome P450s. The Journal of toxicological sciences. 1998;23 Suppl 2:132–135.

Yamada A., Fujita K., Yokoi T., et al. In vivo detection of mutations induced by aflatoxin B1 using human CYP3A7/HITEC hybrid mice. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 1998;250:150–153.

Guengerich F. P., Johnson W. W., Shimada T., Ueng Y. F., Yamazaki H., Langouët S.. Activation and detoxication of aflatoxin B1. Mutation research. 1998;402:121–128.

Ireland L. S., Harrison D. J., Neal G. E., Hayes J. D.. Molecular cloning, expression and catalytic activity of a human AKR7 member of the aldo-keto reductase superfamily: evidence that the major 2-carboxybenzaldehyde reductase from human liver is a homologue of rat aflatoxin B1-aldehyde reductase. The Biochemical journal. 1998;332 ( Pt 1):21–34.

Shou M., Martinet M., Korzekwa K. R., Krausz K. W., Gonzalez F. J., Gelboin H. V.. Role of human cytochrome P450 3A4 and 3A5 in the metabolism of taxotere and its derivatives: enzyme specificity, interindividual distribution and metabolic contribution in human liver. Pharmacogenetics. 1998;8:391–401.

Yao D. S., Liang R., Liu D. L., Gu L. Q., Ma L., Chen W. Q.. Screening of the fungus whose multienzyme system has catalytic detoxification activity towards aflatoxin B1 (Part I). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1998;864:579–585.

Manson M. M., Ball H. W., Barrett M. C., et al. Mechanism of action of dietary chemoprotective agents in rat liver: induction of phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes and aflatoxin B1 metabolism. Carcinogenesis. 1997;18:1729–1738.

Yanagimoto T., Itoh S., Sawada M., Kamataki T.. Mouse cytochrome P450 (Cyp3a11): predominant expression in liver and capacity to activate aflatoxin B1. Archives of biochemistry and biophysics. 1997;340:215–218.

Li Y., Yokoi T., Katsuki M., Wang J. S., Groopman J. D., Kamataki T.. In vivo activation of aflatoxin B1 in C57BL/6N mice carrying a human fetus-specific CYP3A7 gene. Cancer research. 1997;57:641–645.

Pelkonen P., Lang M. A., Negishi M., Wild C. P., Juvonen R. O.. Interaction of aflatoxin B1 with cytochrome P450 2A5 and its mutants: correlation with metabolic activation and toxicity. Chemical research in toxicology. 1997;10:85–90.

Guerre P., Eeckhoutte C., Larrieu G., Burgat V., Galtier P.. Dose-related effect of aflatoxin B1 on liver drug metabolizing enzymes in rabbit. Toxicology. 1996;108:39–48.

Guengerich F. P., Ueng Y. F., Kim B. R., et al. Activation of toxic chemicals by cytochrome P450 enzymes: regio- and stereoselective oxidation of aflatoxin B1. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 1996;387:7–15.

Mistry K. J., Krishna M., Bhattacharya R. K.. Signal transduction mechanism in response to aflatoxin B1 exposure: phosphatidylinositol metabolism. Chemico-biological interactions. 1995;98:145–152.

Zhu Y., Bye S., Stambrook P. J., Tischfield J. A.. Aflatoxin B1, 2-aminoanthracene, and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced frameshift mutations in human APRT. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis. 1995;26:234–239.

Ueng Y. F., Shimada T., Yamazaki H., Guengerich F. P.. Oxidation of aflatoxin B1 by bacterial recombinant human cytochrome P450 enzymes. Chemical research in toxicology. 1995;8:218–225.

Putt D. A., Ding X., Coon M. J., Hollenberg P. F.. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by rabbit and rat nasal mucosa microsomes and purified cytochrome P450, including isoforms 2A10 and 2A11. Carcinogenesis. 1995;16:1411–1417.

McLean M., Dutton M. F.. Cellular interactions and metabolism of aflatoxin: an update. Pharmacology & therapeutics. 1995;65:163–192.

Pelkonen P., Kirby G. M., Wild C. P., Bartsch H., Lang M. A.. Metabolism of nitrosamines and aflatoxin B1 by hamster liver CYP2A enzymes. Chemico-biological interactions. 1994;93:41–50.

Datta K., Kulkarni A. P.. Oxidative metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by lipoxygenase purified from human term placenta and intrauterine conceptal tissues. Teratology. 1994;50:311–317.

Ellis E. M., Judah D. J., Neal G. E., Hayes J. D.. An ethoxyquin-inducible aldehyde reductase from rat liver that metabolizes aflatoxin B1 defines a subfamily of aldo-keto reductases. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1993;90:10350–10354.

Hayes J. D., Judah D. J., Neal G. E.. Resistance to aflatoxin B1 is associated with the expression of a novel aldo-keto reductase which has catalytic activity towards a cytotoxic aldehyde-containing metabolite of the toxin. Cancer research. 1993;53:3887–3894.

Yabe T., Hashimoto H., Sekijima M., et al. Effects of nivalenol on hepatic drug-metabolizing activity in rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1993;31:573–581.

Sawada M., Kitamura R., Norose T., Kitada M., Itahashi K., Kamataki T.. Metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 by human placental microsomes. The Journal of toxicological sciences. 1993;18:129–132.

Daniels J. M., Massey T. E.. Modulation of aflatoxin B1 biotransformation in rabbit pulmonary and hepatic microsomes. Toxicology. 1992;74:19–32.

Guengerich F. P., Raney K. D., Kim D. H., et al. Oxidation and conjugation of aflatoxins by humans and experimental animals. Progress in clinical and biological research. 1992;374:157–165.

Liu L., Massey T. E.. Bioactivation of aflatoxin B1 by lipoxygenases, prostaglandin H synthase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in guinea-pig tissues. Carcinogenesis. 1992;13:533–539.

Dunn J. A., Faletto M. B., Kasper S. J., Gurtoo H. L.. Aflatoxin-transformed C3H/10T1/2 cells overexpress protein kinase C and have an altered response to phorbol ester treatments. Cancer research. 1992;52:990–996.

Ubukata K., Ohi H., Kitada M., Kamataki T.. A new form of cytochrome P-450 responsible for mutagenic activation of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline in human livers. Cancer research. 1992;52:758–763.

Billaud C.. Effects of harmane on growth and in vivo metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in male and female rats. Food additives and contaminants. 1991;8:713–722.

Chou M. W., Pegram R. A., Gao P., Hansard S. R., Shaddock J. G., Casciano D. A.. The effects of dietary restriction and aging on in vivo and in vitro binding of aflatoxin B1 to cellular DNA. Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES. 1991;4:134–143.

Yu F. L., Huang J. X., Bender W., Wu Z. R., Chang J. C.. Evidence for the covalent binding of aflatoxin B1-dichloride to cytosine in DNA. Carcinogenesis. 1991;12:997–1002.

Ramsdell H. S., Parkinson A., Eddy A. C., Eaton D. L.. Bioactivation of aflatoxin B1 by human liver microsomes: role of cytochrome P450 IIIA enzymes. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1991;108:436–447.

Yu F. L., Bender W., Wu Z. G.. Transcriptional effect of aflatoxin B1 on cytosine and/or hypoxanthine containing DNAs. Molecular and cellular biochemistry. 1991;103:1–8.

Weekley L. B.. Aflatoxin B1 alters central and systemic tryptophan and tyrosine metabolism: influence of immunomodulatory drugs. Metabolic brain disease. 1991;6:19–32.

Ball R. W., Coulombe R. A.. Comparative biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 in mammalian airway epithelium. Carcinogenesis. 1991;12:305–310.

Crespi C. L., Penman B. W., Steimel D. T., Gelboin H. V., Gonzalez F. J.. The development of a human cell line stably expressing human CYP3A4: role in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 and comparison to CYP1A2 and CYP2A3. Carcinogenesis. 1991;12:355–359.

Busbee D. L., Norman J. O., Ziprin R. L.. Comparative uptake, vascular transport, and cellular internalization of aflatoxin-B1 and benzo(a)pyrene. Archives of toxicology. 1990;64:285–290.

Larsson P., Hoedaya W. I., Tjälve H.. Disposition of 3H-aflatoxin B1 in mice: formation and retention of tissue bound metabolites in nasal glands. Pharmacology & toxicology. 1990;67:162–171.

Kitada M., Taneda M., Ohta K., Nagashima K., Itahashi K., Kamataki T.. Metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 and 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]-quinoline by human adult and fetal livers. Cancer research. 1990;50:2641–2645.

Faletto M. B., Maccubbin A. E., Ersing N., Kouli F., Vangalio J. A., Gurtoo H. L.. Altered benzo[a]pyrene metabolism in C3H/10T1/2 cells transformed by aflatoxin B1 or 3-methylcholanthrene. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1990;104:351–366.

Crespi C. L., Steimel D. T., Aoyama T., Gelboin H. V., Gonzalez F. J.. Stable expression of human cytochrome P450IA2 cDNA in a human lymphoblastoid cell line: role of the enzyme in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Molecular carcinogenesis. 1990;3:5–8.

Fukuhara M., Mizokami K., Sakaguchi M., et al. Aflatoxin B1-specific cytochrome P-450 isozyme (P-450-AFB) inducible by 3-methylcholanthrene in golden hamsters. Biochemical pharmacology. 1990;39:463–469.

Ankrah N. A., Ekuban F. A., Asamoah E. B.. Depressant effect of very low levels of aflatoxin B1 on mouse glyoxylase-I activity and methylglyoxal disposal. Biochemical pharmacology. 1990;39:1261–1263.

Forrester L. M., Neal G. E., Judah D. J., Glancey M. J., Wolf C. R.. Evidence for involvement of multiple forms of cytochrome P-450 in aflatoxin B1 metabolism in human liver. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1990;87:8306–8310.

Fukuhara M., Nohmi T., Mizokami K., Sunouchi M., Ishidate M., Takanaka A.. Characterization of three forms of cytochrome P-450 inducible by 3-methylcholanthrene in Golden hamster livers with special reference to aflatoxin B1 activation. Journal of biochemistry. 1989;106:253–258.

Fukuhara M., Nagata K., Mizokami K., Yamazoe Y., Takanaka A., Kato R.. Complete cDNA sequence of a major 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450 isozyme (P-450AFB) of Syrian hamsters with high activity toward aflatoxin B1. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 1989;162:265–272.

Larsson P., Pettersson H., Tjälve H.. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in the bovine olfactory mucosa. Carcinogenesis. 1989;10:1113–1118.

Bodine A. B., Luer C. A., Gangjee S. A., Walsh C. J.. In vitro metabolism of the pro-carcinogen aflatoxin B1 by liver preparations of the calf, nurse shark and clearnose skate. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. C, Comparative pharmacology and toxicology. 1989;94:447–453.

Shimada T., Guengerich F. P.. Evidence for cytochrome P-450NF, the nifedipine oxidase, being the principal enzyme involved in the bioactivation of aflatoxins in human liver. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1989;86:462–465.

Sunouchi M., Fukuhara M., Ohno Y., Takanaka A.. Effects of various inducers on the activities of cytochrome P-450-mixed function oxidases and aflatoxin B1 activation in microsomes of hamster livers. The Journal of toxicological sciences. 1988;13:193–204.

Halvorson M. R., Safe S. H., Parkinson A., Phillips T. D.. Aflatoxin B1 hydroxylation by the pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile-inducible form of rat liver microsomal cytochrome P-450. Carcinogenesis. 1988;9:2103–2108.

Micco C., Miraglia M., Onori R., et al. Long-term administration of low doses of mycotoxins to poultry. 1. Residues of aflatoxin B1 and its metabolites in broilers and laying hens. Food additives and contaminants. 1988;5:303–308.

Doehmer J., Dogra S., Friedberg T., et al. Stable expression of rat cytochrome P-450IIB1 cDNA in Chinese hamster cells (V79) and metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 1988;85:5769–5773.

Loechler E. L., Teeter M. M., Whitlow M. D.. Mapping the binding site of aflatoxin B1 in DNA: molecular modeling of the binding sites for the N(7)-guanine adduct of aflatoxin B1 in different DNA sequences. Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics. 1988;5:1237–1257.

Nikov P. S., Bozhko D. M., Neĭman L. A., Antropova L. P.. [Effect of qualitatively varying nutrition on several parameters of aflatoxin B1 metabolism and toxicokinetics]. Voprosy pitaniia. 1988:51–55.

Müller N., Petzinger E.. Hepatocellular uptake of aflatoxin B1 by non-ionic diffusion. Inhibition of bile acid transport by interference with membrane lipids. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1988;938:334–344.

Loveland P. M., Wilcox J. S., Pawlowski N. E., Bailey G. S.. Metabolism and DNA binding of aflatoxicol and aflatoxin B1 in vivo and in isolated hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Carcinogenesis. 1987;8:1065–1070.

Dirr H. W., Schabort J. C.. Characterization of the aflatoxin B1-binding site of rat albumin. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1987;913:300–307.

Mariën K., Moyer R., Loveland P., Van Holde K., Bailey G.. Comparative binding and sequence interaction specificities of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxicol, aflatoxin M1, and aflatoxicol M1 with purified DNA. The Journal of biological chemistry. 1987;262:7455–7462.

Plummer S., Boobis A. R., Davies D. S.. Strain differences in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 in the rat. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 1987;17:199–208.

Kärenlampi S. O.. Mechanism of cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: role of cytochrome P1-450. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 1987;145:854–860.

Dirr H. W.. Effects of hydrogen ion and fatty acid concentrations on the binding of aflatoxin B1 to human albumin. Biochemistry international. 1987;14:727–733.

Wood M. L., Smith J. R., Garner R. C.. Aflatoxin B1 activation to a plasmid mutagen by a chemical model of cytochrome P-450. Mutation research. 1987;176:11–20.

Coulombe R. A., Wilson D. W., Hsieh D. P., Plopper C. G., Serabjit-Singh C. J.. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 in the upper airways of the rabbit: role of the nonciliated tracheal epithelial cell. Cancer research. 1986;46:4091–4096.

Wild C. P., Garner R. C., Montesano R., Tursi F.. Aflatoxin B1 binding to plasma albumin and liver DNA upon chronic administration to rats. Carcinogenesis. 1986;7:853–858.

Dirr H. W., Schabort J. C.. Aflatoxin B1 transport in rat blood plasma. Binding to albumin in vivo and in vitro and spectrofluorimetric studies into the nature of the interaction. Biochimica et biophysica acta. 1986;881:383–390.

Neal G. E., Judah D. J., Green J. A.. The in vitro metabolism of aflatoxin B1 catalyzed by hepatic microsomes isolated from control or 3-methylcholanthrene-stimulated rats and quail. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1986;82:454–460.

Mizokami K., Nohmi T., Fukuhara M., Takanaka A., Omori Y.. Purification and characterization of a form of cytochrome P-450 with high specificity for aflatoxin B1 from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated hamster liver. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 1986;139:466–472.

Obidoa O.. Aflatoxin inhibition of rat liver mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase activity. Biochemical medicine and metabolic biology. 1986;35:302–307.

Nyandieka H. S.. Metabolic effect of aflatoxin B1 on the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes & plasma level of marker enzymes of liver disorder in relation to nutritional stress. The Indian journal of medical research. 1986;83:538–545.

Plummer S., Boobis A. R., Davies D. S.. Is the activation of aflatoxin B1 catalysed by the same form of cytochrome P-450 as that 4-hydroxylating debrisoquine in rat and/or man? Archives of toxicology. 1986;58:165–170.

Helferich W. G., Baldwin R. L., Hsieh D. P.. [14C]-aflatoxin B1 metabolism in lactating goats and rats. Journal of animal science. 1986;62:697–705.

Wolzak A., Pearson A. M., Coleman T. H., Pestka J. J., Gray J. I., Chen C.. Aflatoxin carryover and clearance from tissues of laying hens. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1986;24:37–41.

Modali R., Yang S. S.. Specificity of aflatoxin B1 binding on human proto-oncogene nucleotide sequence. Progress in clinical and biological research. 1986;207:147–158.

Prasanna H. R., Lotlikar P. D., Hacobian N., Magee P. N.. Differential effects on the metabolism of dimethylnitrosamine and aflatoxin B1 by hepatic microsomes from senescent rats. Cancer letters. 1986;33:259–267.

Halvorson M. R., Phillips T. D., Safe S. H., Robertson L. W.. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by rat hepatic microsomes induced by polyhalogenated biphenyl congeners. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1985;49:882–886.

Wilson R., Ziprin R., Ragsdale S., Busbee D.. Uptake and vascular transport of ingested aflatoxin. Toxicology letters. 1985;29:169–176.

Yourtee D. M., Rohrig T. P.. The in vitro metabolism of aflatoxin Q1 by mouse and rabbit liver preparations. Research communications in chemical pathology and pharmacology. 1985;50:103–123.

Coulombe R. A., Sharma R. P.. Clearance and excretion of intratracheally and orally administered aflatoxin B1 in the rat. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1985;23:827–830.

Shepherd E. C., Phillips T. D., Irvin T. R., Safe S. H., Robertson L. W.. Aflatoxin B1 metabolism in the rat: polyhalogenated biphenyl enhanced conversion to aflatoxin M1. Xenobiotica; the fate of foreign compounds in biological systems. 1984;14:741–750.

Ehrich M., Huckle W. R., Larsen C.. Increase in glucuronide conjugation of aflatoxin P1 after pretreatment with microsomal enzyme inducers. Toxicology. 1984;32:145–152.

Chen C., Pearson A. M., Coleman T. H., Gray J. I., Pestka J. J., Aust S. D.. Tissue deposition and clearance of aflatoxins from broiler chickens fed a contaminated diet. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1984;22:447–451.

Byard J. L.. Metabolism of food toxicants: saccharin and aflatoxin B1, a contrast in metabolism and toxicity. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 1984;177:147–151.

Lowery C., Orton T. C., Garner R. C.. Metabolic activation and bacterial mutagenicity of aflatoxin B1 in two different test systems. Toxicology. 1983;29:131–141.

Williams D. E., Buhler D. R.. Purified form of cytochrome P-450 from rainbow trout with high activity toward conversion of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin B1-2,3-epoxide. Cancer research. 1983;43:4752–4756.

Stubblefield R. D., Pier A. C., Richard J. L., Shotwell O. L.. Fate of aflatoxins in tissues, fluids, and excrements from cows dosed orally with aflatoxin B1. American journal of veterinary research. 1983;44:1750–1752.

Gregory J. F., Goldstein S. L., Edds G. T.. Metabolite distribution and rate of residue clearance in turkeys fed a diet containing aflatoxin B1. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 1983;21:463–467.

Amstad P., Cerutti P.. DNA binding of aflatoxin B1 by co-oxygenation in mouse embryo fibroblasts C3H/10T1/2. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 1983;112:1034–1040.

Kumagai S., Nakano N., Aibara K.. Interactions of aflatoxin B1 and blood components of various species in vitro: interconversion of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxicol in the blood. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1983;67:292–301.

Kamdem L., Siest G., Magdalou J.. Differential toxicity of aflatoxin B1 in male and female rats: relationship with hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. Biochemical pharmacology. 1982;31:3057–3062.

Trucksess M. W., Stoloff L., Brumley W. C., et al. Aflatoxicol and aflatoxins B1 and M1 in the tissues of pigs receiving aflatoxin. Journal – Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1982;65:884–887.

Rice D. W., Hsieh D. P.. Aflatoxin M1: in vitro preparation and comparative in vitro metabolism versus aflatoxin B1 in the rat and mouse. Research communications in chemical pathology and pharmacology. 1982;35:467–490.

Bennett R. A., Essigmann J. M., Wogan G. N.. Excretion of an aflatoxin-guanine adduct in the urine of aflatoxin B1-treated rats. Cancer research. 1981;41:650–654.

Hsieh D. P., Wong J. J.. Metabolism and toxicity of aflatoxins. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 1981;136 Pt B:847–863.

Odajima T.. Oxidative destruction of the microbial metabolite aflatoxin by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system. Archives of oral biology. 1981;26:339–340.

Singh N., Clausen J.. Different tissue responses of mixed function oxidases and detoxifying enzymes to aflatoxin B1 administration in the rat. British journal of experimental pathology. 1980;61:611–616.

Autrup H., Schwartz R. D., Essigmann J. M., Smith L., Trump B. F., Harris C. C.. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1, benzo[a]pyrene, and 1,2-dimethylhydrazine by cultured rat and human colon. Teratogenesis, carcinogenesis, and mutagenesis. 1980;1:3–13.

Wong Z. A., Hsieh D. P.. The comparative metabolism and toxicokinetics of aflatoxin B1 in the monkey, rat, and mouse. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1980;55:115–125.

Lüthy J., Zweifel U., Schlatter C.. Metabolism and tissue distribution of [14C]aflatoxin B1 in pigs. Food and cosmetics toxicology. 1980;18:253–256.

Neathery M. W., Moos W. H., Wyatt R. D., Miller W. J., Gentry R. P., George L. W.. Effects of dietary aflatoxin on performance and zinc metabolism in dairy calves. Journal of dairy science. 1980;63:789.

Llewellyn G. C., Hastings C. E., Hofman J. W.. Biointeraction of aflatoxin and zinc in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Toxicon. 1980;18:107–112.

Tang S. Y., Tung T. C., Ho C. C.. Urinary excretion of aflatoxin B1 and its metabolite M1 in growing swine fed with aflatoxin contaminated diet. Taiwan yi xue hui za zhi. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 1980;79:472–476.

Gurtoo H. L., Dahms R. P.. Effects of inducers and inhibitors on the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 by rat and mouse. Biochemical pharmacology. 1979;28:3441–3449.

Guengerich F. P.. Similarity of nuclear and microsomal cytochromes P-450 in the in vitro activation of aflatoxin B1. Biochemical pharmacology. 1979;28:2883–2890.

Garner R. C., Martin C. N., Smith J. R., Coles B. F., Tolson M. R.. Comparison of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 binding to cellular macromolecules in vitro, in vivo and after peracid oxidation; characterisation of the major nucleic acid adducts. Chemico-biological interactions. 1979;26:57–73.

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