Following is a list of articles about abnormalities with additional infections in ME and CFS.
Links to the more than 1,000 peer-reviewed journal articles are listed on the ME and CFS Medical Abnormalities page of this website.
Hanevik K, Kristoffersen E, Mørch K, Rye KP, Sørnes S, Svärd S, Bruserud Ø, Langeland N. Giardia-specific cellular immune responses in post-giardiasis chronic fatigue syndrome. BMC Immunol. 2017 Jan 28;18(1):5. PMID: 28129747
The role of pathogen specific cellular immune responses against the eliciting pathogen in development of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS) is not known and such studies are difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to evaluate specific anti-Giardia cellular immunity in cases that developed CFS after Giardia infection compared to cases that recovered well. The data show antigen specific cellular immune responses in the groups previously exposed to Giardia and increased sCD40L in fatigued patients.
Magnus P, Gunnes N, Tveito K, Bakken IJ, Ghaderi S, Stoltenberg C, Hornig M, Lipkin WI, Trogstad L, Håberg SE. Chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is associated with pandemic influenza infection, but not with an adjuvanted pandemic influenza vaccine. Vaccine. 2015 Nov 17;33(46):6173-7. PMID: 26475444
Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) infection was associated with a more than two-fold increased risk of CFS/ME.
Elfaitouri A, Herrmann B, Bölin-Wiener A, Wang Y, Gottfries CG, Zachrisson O, Pipkorn R, Rönnblom L, Blomberg J. Epitopes of microbial and human heat shock protein 60 and their recognition in myalgic encephalomyelitis. PLoS One. 2013 Nov 28;8(11):e81155. PMID: 24312270
A peptide from Chlamydia pneumoniae human heat shock protein was detected in 24% of ME samples compared to less than 1% of non-ME samples (taken from blood donor, multiple sclerosis patients and systemic lupus erythematosus patients).
Mørch K, Hanevik K, Rivenes AC, Bødtker JE, Næss H, Stubhaug B, Wensaas KA, Rortveit G, Eide GE, Hausken T, Langeland N. Chronic fatigue syndrome 5 years after giardiasis: differential diagnoses, characteristics and natural course. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013 Feb 12;13:28. PMID:23399438
A high prevalence of chronic fatigue has previously been reported following giardiasis after a large waterborne outbreak in Bergen, Norway in 2004. This study shows that Giardia duodenalis may induce CFS persisting as long as five years after the infection.
Hanevik K, Kristoffersen EK, Sørnes S, Mørch K, Næss H, Rivenes AC, Bødtker JE, Hausken T, Langeland N. Immunophenotyping in post-giardiasis functional gastrointestinal disease and chronic fatigue syndrome. BMC Infect Dis. 2012 Oct 14;12:258. PMID: 23061432
A Giardia outbreak was associated with development of post-infectious functional gastrointestinal disorders (PI-FGID) and chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS). Five years later, researchers found significantly higher CD8 T-cell levels in PI-FGID, and significantly lower NK-cell levels in PI-CFS patients. Severity of abdominal and fatigue symptoms correlated negatively with NK-cell levels.
Naess H, Nyland M, Hausken T, Follestad I, Nyland HI. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012 Feb 8;12:13. PMID: 22316329
After a giardiasis enteritis outbreak, at least 5% of those affected developed clinical characteristics and functional impairment comparable to previously described post-infectious fatigue syndrome.
Larbcharoensub N, Boonsakan P, Aroonroch R, Rochanawutanon M, Nitiyanant P, Phongkitkarun S, Poonvutikul S, Watcharananan SP, Ngarmukos C. Adrenal histoplasmosis: a case series and review of the literature. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011 Jul;42(4):920-5. PMID: 22299474
The authors report seven cases of adrenal histoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients. All patients presented as chronic fatigue syndrome. The onset of symptoms ranged from one to three months. A cure was accomplished in 6 out of 7 cases.
Maes M, Twisk FN, Kubera M, Ringel K, Leunis JC, Geffard M. Increased IgA responses to the LPS of commensal bacteria is associated with inflammation and activation of cell-mediated immunity in chronic fatigue syndrome. J Affect Disord. 2011 Oct 1. PMID: 21967891
Increased IgA responses to commensal bacteria in ME/CFS are associated with inflammation and cell-mediated immunity activation, which are associated with symptom severity. It is concluded that increased translocation of commensal bacteria may be responsible for the disease activity in some ME/CFS patients.
Grinde B. Is chronic fatigue syndrome caused by a rare brain infection of a common, normally benign virus? Med Hypotheses. 2008 Aug;71(2):270-4. PMID: 18440157
The authors propose that CFS is caused by a circovirus.
Sairenji T, Nagata K. Viral infections in chronic fatigue syndrome. Nihon Rinsho. 2007 Jun;65(6):991-6. PMID: 17561687
The major hypothesis of the pathogenesis of CFS is that infectious agents such as viruses, may trigger and lead to chronic activation of the immune system with abnormal regulation of cytokine production. The authors summarize the recent progressive literature of virus, rickettsia, and mycoplasma implicated in the pathogenesis of CFS.
Hickie I, Davenport T, Wakefield D, Vollmer-Conna U, Cameron B, Vernon SD, Reeves WC, Lloyd A; Dubbo Infection Outcomes Study Group. Post-infective and chronic fatigue syndromes precipitated by viral and non-viral pathogens: prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2006 Sep 16;333(7568):575. PMID: 16950834
A significant minority of people with variety of infections (including Epstein-Barr virus, Coxiella burnetii or Ross River virus) remain ill with a post-infection syndrome qualifying as CFS over the long term.
Jones JF, Kulkarni PS, Butera ST, Reeves WC. GB virus-C–a virus without a disease: we cannot give it chronic fatigue syndrome. BMC Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 28;5:78. PMID: 16191201
GB virus-C (GBV-C) virus is a flavivirus with cell tropism and host defense induction qualities compatible with a role in producing the syndrome. The authors found no evidence that active or past infection with GBV is associated with CFS.
Ikuta K, Yamada T, Shimomura T, Kuratsune H, Kawahara R, Ikwaa S, Ohnishi E, Sokawa Y, Fukushi H, Hirai K, Watanabe Y, Kurata T, Kitani T, Sairenji T. Diagnostic evaluation of 2′, 5′-oligoadenylate synthetase activities and antibodies against Epstein-Barr virus and Coxiella burnetii in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome in Japan. Microbes Infect. 2003 Oct;5(12):1096-102. PMID: 14554250
Some CFS patients may be associated with EBV or C. burnetii infection. The up-regulation of 2-5AS activities suggests immunological dysfunctions with some virus infections in the CFS patients.
Nicolson GL, Gan R, Haier J. Multiple co-infections (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, human herpes virus-6) in blood of chronic fatigue syndrome patients: association with signs and symptoms. APMIS. 2003 May;111(5):557-66. PMID: 12887507
A large subset of CFS patients show evidence of bacterial and/or viral infection(s), and these infections may contribute to the severity of signs and symptoms found in these patients.
Chia JK, Chia LY. Chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection: a treatable cause of chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 1999 Aug;29(2):452-3. PMID: 10476765
Chlamydia pneumoniae is discussed as a contributor to CFS.
Pamphlett R, O’Donoghue P. Antibodies against Sarcocystis and Toxoplasma in humans with the chronic fatigue syndrome. Aust N Z J Med. 1992 Jun;22(3):307-8. PMID: 1497558
Komaroff AL, Wang SP, Lee J, Grayston JT. No association of chronic Chlamydia pneumoniae infection with chronic fatigue syndrome. J Infect Dis. 1992 Jan;165(1):184. PMID: 1727893
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