A Blog About the Role of Microbial Toxins in Chronic Illness

Effects of Trichothecenes

This page lists a small fraction of the peer-reviewed literature on the health effects of trichothecene toxins. Included are sections on the effects on the astrocytes and the blood-brain barrier; on other neurological effects; on immunological effects; and on intestinal effects.

 

Astrocytes & Blood-Brain Barrier

Weidner Maria, Hüwel Sabine, Ebert Franziska, Schwerdtle Tanja, Galla Hans-Joachim J., Humpf Hans-Ulrich U.. Influence of T-2 and HT-2 toxin on the blood-brain barrier in vitro: new experimental hints for neurotoxic effects. PloS one.  2013;8.

Weidner Maria, Lenczyk Marlies, Schwerdt Gerald, Gekle Michael, Humpf Hans-Ulrich U.. Neurotoxic potential and cellular uptake of T-2 toxin in human astrocytes in primary culture. Chemical research in toxicology.  2013;26:347–355.

Razafimanjato Helisoa, Benzaria Amal, Taïeb Nadira, et al. The ribotoxin deoxynivalenol affects the viability and functions of glial cells.  Glia.  2011;59:1672–1683.

Ravindran Jayaraj, Agrawal Mona, Gupta Nimesh, Rao Lakshmana V.. Alteration of blood brain barrier permeability by T-2 toxin: Role of MMP-9 and inflammatory cytokines. Toxicology.  2011;280:44–52.

Karunasena Enusha, Larrañaga Michael D., Simoni Jan S., Douglas David R., Straus David C.. Building-associated neurological damage modeled in human cells: a mechanism of neurotoxic effects by exposure to mycotoxins in the indoor environment. Mycopathologia.  2010;170:377–390.

Wang J., Fitzpatrick D. W., Wilson J. R.. Effect of T-2 toxin on blood-brain barrier permeability monoamine oxidase activity and protein synthesis in rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1998;36:955–961.

 

Other Neurological Effects

Gaigé Stéphanie, Djelloul Mehdi, Tardivel Catherine, et al. Modification of energy balance induced by the food contaminant T-2 toxin: A multimodal gut-to-brain connection. Brain, behavior, and immunity.  2014;37:54–72.

Maresca Marc. From the gut to the brain: journey and pathophysiological effects of the food-associated trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Toxins.  2013;5:784–820.

Gaigé Stéphanie, Bonnet Marion S., Tardivel Catherine, et al. c-Fos immunoreactivity in the pig brain following deoxynivalenol intoxication: focus on NUCB2/nesfatin-1 expressing neurons. Neurotoxicology.  2013;34:135–149.

Bonnet Marion S., Roux Julien, Mounien Lourdes, Dallaporta Michel, Troadec Jean-Denis D.. Advances in deoxynivalenol toxicity mechanisms: the brain as a target. Toxins.  2012;4:1120–1138.

Girardet Clémence, Bonnet Marion S., Jdir Rajae, et al. The food-contaminant deoxynivalenol modifies eating by targeting anorexigenic neurocircuitry. PloS one.  2011;6:e26134+.

Doi Kunio, Uetsuka Koji. Mechanisms of Mycotoxin-Induced Neurotoxicity through Oxidative Stress-Associated Pathways. International journal of molecular sciences.  2011;12:5213–5237.

Chaudhary Manjari, Rao Lakshmana V.. Brain oxidative stress after dermal and subcutaneous exposure of T-2 toxin in mice. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2010;48:3436–3442.

Islam Zahidul, Shinozuka Junko, Harkema Jack R., Pestka James J.. Purification and comparative neurotoxicity of the trichothecenes satratoxin G and roridin L2 from Stachybotrys chartarum. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A.  2009;72:1242–1251.

Girish C. K., MacDonald E. J., Scheinin M., Smith T. K.. Effects of feedborne fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of turkeys.  Poultry science.  2008;87:1295–1302.

Islam Zahidul, Hegg Colleen C., Bae Hee Kyong K., Pestka James J.. Satratoxin G-induced apoptosis in PC-12 neuronal cells is mediated by PKR and caspase independent. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2008;105:142–152.

Kralj Ana, Gurgui Mihaela, König Gabriele M., Echten-Deckert Gerhild. Trichothecenes induce accumulation of glucosylceramide in neural cells by interfering with lactosylceramide synthase activity. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2007;225:113–122.

Islam Zahidul, Amuzie Chidozie J., Harkema Jack R., Pestka James J.. Neurotoxicity and inflammation in the nasal airways of mice exposed to the macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxin roridin a: kinetics and potentiation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide coexposure. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2007;98:526–541.

Swamy H. V., Smith T. K., MacDonald E. J.. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on brain regional neurochemistry of starter pigs and broiler chickens. Journal of animal science.  2004;82:2131–2139.

Sehata Shinya, Kiyosawa Naoki, Makino Toshihiko, et al. Morphological and microarray analysis of T-2 toxin-induced rat fetal brain lesion. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2004;42:1727–1736.

Lees-Haley Paul R.. Toxic mold and mycotoxins in neurotoxicity cases: Stachybotrys, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Trichothecenes. Psychological reports.  2003;93:561–584.

Rimando A. M., Porter J. K.. Effects of Fusarium mycotoxins on levels of serotonin, melatonin, and 5-hydroxytryptophan in pineal cell cultures.  Advances in experimental medicine and biology.  1999;467:425–431.

Wang J., Fitzpatrick D. W., Wilson J. R.. Effects of the trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 toxin on neurotransmitters and metabolites in discrete areas of the rat brain. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1998;36:947–953.

Bergmann F., Soffer D., Yagen B.. Cerebral toxicity of the trichothecene toxin T-2, of the products of its hydrolysis and of some related toxins.  Toxicon.  1988;26:923–930.

Prelusky D. B.. A study on the effect of deoxynivalenol on serotonin receptor binding in pig brain membranes. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes.  1996;31:1103–1117.

Prelusky D. B.. The effect of deoxynivalenol on serotoninergic neurotransmitter levels in pig blood. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes.  1994;29:1203–1218.

Prelusky D. B.. The effect of low-level deoxynivalenol on neurotransmitter levels measured in pig cerebral spinal fluid. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes.  1993;28:731–761.

Wang J., Fitzpatrick D. W., Wilson J. R.. Effect of dietary T-2 toxin on biogenic monoamines in discrete areas of the rat brain. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1993;31:191–197.

Sirkka U., Nieminen S. A., Ylitalo P.. Acute neurobehavioural toxicity of trichothecene T-2 toxin in the rat. Pharmacology & toxicology.  1992;70:111–114.

Prelusky D. B., Yeung J. M., Thompson B. K., Trenholm H. L.. Effect of deoxynivalenol on neurotransmitters in discrete regions of swine brain.  Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology.  1992;22:36–40.

Bergmann F., Yagen B., Jarvis B. B.. The toxicity of macrocyclic trichothecenes administered directly into the rat brain. Toxicon.  1992;30:1291–1294.

Lundeen G. R., Poppenga R. H., Beasley V. R., Manuel R. K., Buck W. B., Tranquilli W. J.. Regional brain blood flow in swine following T-2 toxin administration. Veterinary and human toxicology.  1991;33:567–570.

Yagen B., Bergmann F., Barel S., Sintov A.. Metabolism of T-2 toxin by rat brain homogenate. Biochemical pharmacology.  1991;42:949–951.

Smith T. K., MacDonald E. J.. Effect of fusaric acid on brain regional neurochemistry and vomiting behavior in swine. Journal of animal science.  1991;69:2044–2049.

Weekley L. B., O’Rear C. E., Kimbrough T. D., Llewellyn G. C.. Acute and chronic effects of the trichothecene mycotoxin T-2 on rat brain regional concentrations of serotonin, tryptophan, and tyrosine. Veterinary and human toxicology.  1989;31:221–224.

Bergmann F., Yagen B.. Structure-activity relationships for the direct toxic action of trichothecenes on rat brain. Archives of toxicology.  1989;63:155–156.

Fitzpatrick D. W., Boyd K. E., Wilson L. M., Wilson J. R.. Effect of the trichothecene deoxynivalenol on brain biogenic monoamines concentrations in rats and chickens. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes.  1988;23:159–170.

Boyd K. E., Fitzpatrick D. W., Wilson J. R., Wilson L. M.. Effect of T-2 toxin on brain biogenic monoamines in rats and chickens. Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire.  1988;52:181–185.

Fitzpatrick D. W., Boyd K. E., Watts B. M.. Comparison of the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin for their effects on brain biogenic monoamines in the rat. Toxicology letters.  1988;40:241–245.

Martin L. J., Morse J. D., Anthony A.. Quantitative cytophotometric analysis of brain neuronal RNA and protein changes in acute T-2 mycotoxin poisoned rats. Toxicon.  1986;24:933–941.

Hromas R. A., Yung W. K.. Anguidine potentiates cis-platinum in human brain tumor cells. Journal of neuro-oncology.  1986;3:343–348.

Shohami E., Feuerstein G.. T-2 toxemia and brain prostaglandins.  Prostaglandins.  1986;31:307–319.

Martin L. J., Doebler J. A., Anthony A.. Scanning cytophotometric analysis of brain neuronal nuclear chromatin changes in acute T-2 toxin-treated rats. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1986;85:207–214.

Murthy M. R., Radouco-Thomas S., Bharucha A. D., Levesque G., Pandian S., Radouco-Thomas C.. Effects of trichothecenes (T-2 toxin) on protein synthesis in vitro by brain polysomes and messenger RNA. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry.  1985;9:251–258.

Zamir N., Zamir D., Eiden L. E., et al. Methionine and leucine enkephalin in rat neurohypophysis: different responses to osmotic stimuli and T2 toxin. Science (New York, N.Y.).  1985;228:606–608.

Cannon M., Cranston W. I., Hellon R. F., Townsend Y.. Inhibition, by trichothecene antibiotics, of brain protein synthesis and fever in rabbits. The Journal of physiology.  1982;322:447–455.

Chi M. S., El-Halawani M. E., Waibel P. E., Mirocha C. J.. Effects of T-2 toxin on brain catecholamines and selected blood components in growing chickens. Poultry science.  1981;60:137–141.

Witlock D. R., Wyatt R. D., Ruff M. D.. Morphological changes in the avian intestine induced by citrinin and lack of effect of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin as seen with scanning electron microscopy. Toxicon.  1977;15:41–44.

 

Immune Effects

Kankkunen Päivi, Välimäki Elina, Rintahaka Johanna, et al. Trichothecene mycotoxins activate NLRP3 inflammasome through a P2X7 receptor and Src tyrosine kinase dependent pathway. Human immunology.  2014;75:134–140.

Abbès Samir, Ben Salah-Abbès Jalila, Sharafi Hakimeh, Oueslati Ridha, Noghabi Kambiz Akbari A.. Lactobacillus paracasei BEJ01 prevents immunotoxic effects during chronic zearalenone exposure in Balb/c mice.  Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology.  2013;35:341–348.

Awad Wageha, Ghareeb Khaled, Böhm Josef, Zentek Jürgen. The toxicological impacts of the Fusarium mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol, in poultry flocks with special reference to immunotoxicity. Toxins.  2013;5:912–925.

Islam Mohammad Rafiqul R., Roh Yoon Seok S., Kim Jinho, Lim Chae Woong W., Kim Bumseok. Differential immune modulation by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) in mice. Toxicology letters.  2013;221:152–163.

Jayasooriya Rajapaksha Gedara Prasad Tharanga G., Moon Dong-Oh O., Park Sang Rul R., et al. Combined treatment with verrucarin A and tumor necrosis factor-α sensitizes apoptosis by overexpression of nuclear factor-kappaB-mediated Fas. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology.  2013;36:303–310.

Pan Xiao, Whitten Douglas A., Wu Ming, Chan Christina, Wilkerson Curtis G., Pestka James J.. Global protein phosphorylation dynamics during deoxynivalenol-induced ribotoxic stress response in the macrophage.  Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2013;268:201–211.

Li Shao-Ji J., Pasmans Frank, Croubels Siska, et al. T-2 toxin impairs antifungal activities of chicken macrophages against Aspergillus fumigatus conidia but promotes the pro-inflammatory responses. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A.  2013;42:457–463.

Schmeits Peter C., Volger Oscar L., Zandvliet Ella T., Loveren Henk, Peijnenburg Ad A., Hendriksen Peter J.. Assessment of the usefulness of the murine cytotoxic T cell line CTLL-2 for immunotoxicity screening by transcriptomics. Toxicology letters.  2013;217:1–13.

Choi Byung-Kook K., Jeong Sang-Hee H., Cho Joon-Hyung H., et al. Effects of oral deoxynivalenol exposure on immune-related parameters in lymphoid organs and serum of mice vaccinated with porcine parvovirus vaccine. Mycotoxin research.  2013;29:185–192.

Gauthier Thierry, Waché Yann, Laffitte Joëlle, et al. Deoxynivalenol impairs the immune functions of neutrophils. Molecular nutrition & food research.  2013;57:1026–1036.

Obremski K., Podlasz P., Zmigrodzka M., et al. The effect of T-2 toxin on percentages of CD4+, CD8+, CD4+ CD8+ and CD21+ lymphocytes, and mRNA expression levels of selected cytokines in porcine ileal Peyer’s patches. Polish journal of veterinary sciences.  2013;16:341–349.

Yunus A. W., Ghareeb K., Twaruzek M., Grajewski J., Böhm J.. Deoxynivalenol as a contaminant of broiler feed: effects on bird performance and response to common vaccines. Poultry science.  2012;91:844–851.

Bracarense Ana-Paula P., Lucioli Joelma, Grenier Bertrand, et al. Chronic ingestion of deoxynivalenol and fumonisin, alone or in interaction, induces morphological and immunological changes in the intestine of piglets.  The British journal of nutrition.  2012;107:1776–1786.

Khol-Parisini Annabella, Hellweg Petra, Razzazi-Fazeli Ebrahim, et al. Highly deoxynivalenol contaminated oats and immune function in horses.  Archives of animal nutrition.  2012;66:149–161.

Yohannes T., Sharma A. K., Singh S. D., Goswami T. K.. Immunopathological effects of experimental T-2 mycotoxocosis in broiler chicken co-infected with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Veterinary immunology and immunopathology.  2012;146:245–253.

Nagashima Hitoshi, Nakagawa Hiroyuki, Kushiro Masayo. Opposite effects of two trichothecene mycotoxins, deoxynivalenol and nivalenol, on the levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1β in HL60 cells. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology.  2012;34:1014–1017.

Seeboth Julie, Solinhac Romain, Oswald Isabelle P., Guzylack-Piriou Laurence. The fungal T-2 toxin alters the activation of primary macrophages induced by TLR-agonists resulting in a decrease of the inflammatory response in the pig. Veterinary research.  2012;43.

Chaytor A. C., See M. T., Hansen J. A., Souza A. L., Middleton T. F., Kim S. W.. Effects of chronic exposure of diets with reduced concentrations of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on growth and immune status of pigs.  Journal of animal science.  2011;89:124–135.

Costa André, Mijal Renée S., Keen Jeffrey N., Findlay John B., Wild Christopher P.. Proteomic analysis of the effects of the immunomodulatory mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Proteomics.  2011;11:1903–1914.

Costa André, Keen Jeffrey N., Wild Christopher P., Findlay John B.. An analysis of the phosphoproteome of immune cell lines exposed to the immunomodulatory mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Biochimica et biophysica acta.  2011;1814:850–857.

Sugiyama Kei-Ichi, Kawakami Hiroshi, Kamata Yoichi, Sugita-Konishi Yoshiko. Effect of a combination of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol on lipopolisaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by mouse macrophages. Mycotoxin research.  2011;27:57–62.

Becker Christiane, Reiter Martina, Pfaffl Michael W., Meyer Heinrich H., Bauer Johann, Meyer Karsten H.. Expression of immune relevant genes in pigs under the influence of low doses of deoxynivalenol (DON). Mycotoxin research.  2011;27:287–293.

Sugiyama Kei-ichi, Kinoshita Mawo, Kamata Yoichi, Minai Yuji, Sugita-Konishi Yoshiko. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate suppresses the cytotoxicity induced by trichothecene mycotoxins in mouse cultural macrophages. Mycotoxin research.  2011;27:281–285.

Scholtz N. D., Halle I., Dänicke S., Hartmann G., Zur B., Sauerwein H.. Effects of an active immunization on the immune response of laying Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) fed with or without genetically modified Bacillus thuringiensis-maize. Poultry science.  2010;89:1122–1128.

Xue C. Y., Wang G. H., Chen F., Zhang X. B., Bi Y. Z., Cao Y. C.. Immunopathological effects of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin combination on broilers. Poultry science.  2010;89:1162–1166.

Malovrh T., Jakovac-Strajn B.. Feed contaminated with Fusarium toxins alter lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis in primiparous sows during the perinatal period. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2010;48:2907–2912.

Wada Kenji, Nabae Akiko, Higuchi Hidetoshi, Nagahata Hajime. Effects of mycotoxins on chemiluminescent response and cytokine mRNA expression of bovine neutrophils. The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science.  2010;72:1507–1511.

Taranu Ionelia, Marina Daniela E., Burlacu Radu, Pinton Phillipe, Damian Virgil, Oswald Isabelle P.. Comparative aspects of in vitro proliferation of human and porcine lymphocytes exposed to mycotoxins. Archives of animal nutrition.  2010;64:383–393.

Luongo D., Severino L., Bergamo P., D’Arienzo R., Rossi M.. Trichothecenes NIV and DON modulate the maturation of murine dendritic cells.  Toxicon.  2010;55:73–80.

Sugiyama Kei-ichi, Muroi Masashi, Tanamoto Ken-ichi, Nishijima Motohiro, Sugita-Konishi Yoshiko. Deoxynivalenol and nivalenol inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by mouse macrophage cells. Toxicology letters.  2010;192:150–154.

Ramasamy T., Varshneya C., Katoch V. C.. Immunoprotective Effect of Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) and Glucomannan on T-2 Toxin-Induced Immunodepression in Poultry. Veterinary medicine international.  2010;2010.

Bae Hee Kyong K., Shinozuka Junko, Islam Zahidul, Pestka James J.. Satratoxin G interaction with 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits precedes apoptosis in the macrophage. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2009;237:137–145.

Wang G. H., Xue C. Y., Chen F., et al. Effects of combinations of ochratoxin A and T-2 toxin on immune function of yellow-feathered broiler chickens.  Poultry science.  2009;88:504–510.

Wu Xianai, Kohut Marian, Cunnick Joan, Bailey Ted, Hendrich Suzanne. Deoxynivalenol suppresses circulating and splenic leukocyte subpopulations in BALB/c mice: dose response, time course and sex differences. Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment.  2009;26:1070–1080.

Korosteleva S. N., Smith T. K., Boermans H. J.. Effects of feed naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on metabolism and immunity of dairy cows. Journal of dairy science.  2009;92:1585–1593.

Edmondson David A., Barrios Christy S., Brasel Trevor L., Straus David C., Kurup Viswanath P., Fink Jordan N.. Immune response among patients exposed to molds. International journal of molecular sciences.  2009;10:5471–5484.

Ferrari L., Cantoni A. M., Borghetti P., De Angelis E., Corradi A.. Cellular immune response and immunotoxicity induced by DON (deoxynivalenol) in piglets. Veterinary research communications.  2009;33 Suppl 1:133–135.

Kankkunen Päivi, Rintahaka Johanna, Aalto Annika, et al. Trichothecene mycotoxins activate inflammatory response in human macrophages. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950).  2009;182:6418–6425.

Shi Yuhui, Pestka James J.. Mechanisms for suppression of interleukin-6 expression in peritoneal macrophages from docosahexaenoic acid-fed mice. The Journal of nutritional biochemistry.  2009;20:358–368.

Shi Yuhui, Porter Katie, Parameswaran Narayanan, Bae Hee Kyong K., Pestka James J.. Role of GRP78/BiP degradation and ER stress in deoxynivalenol-induced interleukin-6 upregulation in the macrophage.  Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2009;109:247–255.

Waché Yann J., Hbabi-Haddioui Laila, Guzylack-Piriou Laurence, Belkhelfa Haouaria, Roques Christine, Oswald Isabelle P.. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol inhibits the cell surface expression of activation markers in human macrophages. Toxicology.  2009;262:239–244.

Marzocco Stefania, Russo Rosario, Bianco Giuseppe, Autore Giuseppina, Severino Lorella. Pro-apoptotic effects of nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trichothecenes in J774A.1 murine macrophages. Toxicology letters.  2009;189:21–26.

Shi Yuhui, Porter Katie, Parameswaran Narayanan, Bae Hee Kyong K., Pestka James J.. Role of GRP78/BiP degradation and ER stress in deoxynivalenol-induced interleukin-6 upregulation in the macrophage.  Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2009;109:247–255.

Döll Susanne, Schrickx Jan A., Dänicke Sven, Fink-Gremmels Johanna. Deoxynivalenol-induced cytotoxicity, cytokines and related genes in unstimulated or lipopolysaccharide stimulated primary porcine macrophages. Toxicology letters.  2009;184:97–106.

Hymery N., Léon K., Carpentier F-G G., Jung J-L L., Parent-Massin D.. T-2 toxin inhibits the differentiation of human monocytes into dendritic cells and macrophages. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA.  2009;23:509–519.

Hellgren Ulla-Maija M., Leino Marina, Aarnisalo Antti A., Mussalo-Rauhamaa Helena, Alenius Harri, Reijula Kari. Low tumor necrosis factor alpha levels and neutrophil counts in nasal lavage after mold exposure. Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology.  2009;102:210–215.

Edmondson David A., Barrios Christy S., Brasel Trevor L., Straus David C., Kurup Viswanath P., Fink Jordan N.. Immune response among patients exposed to molds. International journal of molecular sciences.  2009;10:5471–5484.

Ahmadi Kazem, Riazipour Majid. Effects of T-2 toxin on cytokine production by mice peritoneal macrophages and lymph node T-cells. Iranian journal of immunology : IJI.  2008;5:177–180.

Li Maoxiang, Pestka James J.. Comparative induction of 28S ribosomal RNA cleavage by ricin and the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin in the macrophage. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2008;105:67–78.

Severino L., Russo R., Luongo D., De Luna R., Ciarcia R., Rossi M.. Immune effects of four Fusarium-toxins (FB1, ZEA, NIV, DON) on the proliferation of Jurkat cells and porcine lymphocytes: in vitro study.  Veterinary research communications.  2008;32 Suppl 1.

Bae Hee Kyong K., Pestka James J.. Deoxynivalenol induces p38 interaction with the ribosome in monocytes and macrophages. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2008;105:59–66.

Pinton Philippe, Accensi Francesc, Beauchamp Erwan, et al. Ingestion of deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminated feed alters the pig vaccinal immune responses. Toxicology letters.  2008;177:215–222.

Meissonnier G. M., Laffitte J., Raymond I., et al. Subclinical doses of T-2 toxin impair acquired immune response and liver cytochrome P450 in pigs. Toxicology.  2008;247:46–54.

Kubosaki Atsutaka, Aihara Maki, Park Bong Joo J., et al. Immunotoxicity of nivalenol after subchronic dietary exposure to rats. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2008;46:253–258.

Pestka James J., Islam Zahidul, Amuzie Chidozie J.. Immunochemical assessment of deoxynivalenol tissue distribution following oral exposure in the mouse. Toxicology letters.  2008;178:83–87.

Gouze Marie-Estelle E., Laffitte Joëlle, Pinton Philippe, et al. Effect of subacute oral doses of nivalenol on immune and metabolic defence systems in mice. Veterinary research.  2007;38:635–646.

Bimczok Diane, Döll Susanne, Rau Henriette, et al. The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol disrupts phenotype and function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vivo and in vitro. Immunobiology.  2007;212:655–666.

Jun Do Youn Y., Kim Jun Seok S., Park Hae Sun S., Song Woo Sun S., Bae Young Seuk S., Kim Young Ho H.. Cytotoxicity of diacetoxyscirpenol is associated with apoptosis by activation of caspase-8 and interruption of cell cycle progression by down-regulation of cdk4 and cyclin B1 in human Jurkat T cells. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2007;222:190–201.

Wu Xianai, Murphy Patricia, Cunnick Joan, Hendrich Suzanne. Synthesis and characterization of deoxynivalenol glucuronide: its comparative immunotoxicity with deoxynivalenol. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2007;45:1846–1855.

Wang Huiyan, Yadav Jagjit S.. DNA damage, redox changes, and associated stress-inducible signaling events underlying the apoptosis and cytotoxicity in murine alveolar macrophage cell line MH-S by methanol-extracted Stachybotrys chartarum toxins. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2006;214:297–308.

Nasri Thanakarn, Bosch Remko R., Voorde Sandra ten t., Fink-Gremmels Johanna. Differential induction of apoptosis by type A and B trichothecenes in Jurkat T-lymphocytes. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA.  2006;20:832–840.

Pestka James, Zhou Hui-Ren R.. Toll-like receptor priming sensitizes macrophages to proinflammatory cytokine gene induction by deoxynivalenol and other toxicants. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2006;92:445–455.

Islam Zahidul, Gray Jennifer S., Pestka James J.. p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase mediates IL-8 induction by the ribotoxin deoxynivalenol in human monocytes. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2006;213:235–244.

Goyarts Tanja, Dänicke Sven, Tiemann Ute, Rothkötter Hermann-Josef J.. Effect of the Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on IgA, IgM and IgG concentrations and proliferation of porcine blood lymphocytes.  Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA.  2006;20:858–867.

Hymery N., Sibiril Y., Parent-Massin D.. In vitro effects of trichothecenes on human dendritic cells. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA.  2006;20:899–909.

Tiemann U., Brüssow K-P P., Jonas L., Pöhland R., Schneider F., Dänicke S.. Effects of diets with cereal grains contaminated by graded levels of two Fusarium toxins on selected immunological and histological measurements in the spleen of gilts. Journal of animal science.  2006;84:236–245.

Döll S., Goyarts T., Rothkötter H. J., Dänicke S.. Research note: Effects of deoxynivalenol on immunohistological parameters in pigs.  Mycotoxin research.  2006;22:178–182.

Li Maoxiang, Harkema Jack R., Islam Zahidul, Cuff Chistopher F., Pestka James J.. T-2 toxin impairs murine immune response to respiratory reovirus and exacerbates viral bronchiolitis. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2006;217:76–85.

Jaradat Ziad W., Viià Borja, Marquardt Ronal R.. Adverse effects of T-2 toxin on chicken lymphocytes blastogenesis and its protection with Vitamin E. Toxicology.  2006;225:90–96.

Landgren C. A., Hendrich S., Kohut M. L.. Low-level dietary deoxynivalenol and acute exercise stress result in immunotoxicity in BALB/c mice.  Journal of immunotoxicology.  2006;3:173–178.

Li Maoxiang, Cuff Christopher F., Pestka James J.. T-2 toxin impairment of enteric reovirus clearance in the mouse associated with suppressed immunoglobulin and IFN-gamma responses. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2006;214:318–325.

Pestka James J., Uzarski Rebecca L., Islam Zahidul. Induction of apoptosis and cytokine production in the Jurkat human T cells by deoxynivalenol: role of mitogen-activated protein kinases and comparison to other 8-ketotrichothecenes. Toxicology.  2005;206:207–219.

Vlata Zaharenia, Porichis Filippos, Tzanakakis George, Tsatsakis Aristidis, Krambovitis Elias. In vitro cytopathic effects of mycotoxin T-2 on human peripheral blood T lymphocytes. Toxicology letters.  2005;160:60–68.

Li Maoxiang, Cuff Christopher F., Pestka James. Modulation of murine host response to enteric reovirus infection by the trichothecene deoxynivalenol. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2005;87:134–145.

Takayama Hideko, Shimada Nobuaki, Mikami Osamu, Murata Hideo. Suppressive effect of deoxynivalenol, a Fusarium mycotoxin, on bovine and porcine neutrophil chemiluminescence: an in vitro study. The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science.  2005;67:531–533.

Zhou Hui-Ren R., Jia Qunshan, Pestka James J.. Ribotoxic stress response to the trichothecene deoxynivalenol in the macrophage involves the SRC family kinase Hck. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2005;85:916–926.

Li Yue-hong H., Zhang Xiang-hong H., Xing Ling-xiao X., Yan Xia, Wang Jun-ling L., Wang Feng-rong R.. [The inhibitory effect of deoxynivalenol on TAP-1 expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro]. Xi bao yu fen zi mian yi xue za zhi = Chinese journal of cellular and molecular immunology.  2005;21:246–248.

Kamalavenkatesh P., Vairamuthu S., Balachandran C., Manohar B. Murali, raj G. Dhinakar. Immunopathological effect of the mycotoxins cyclopiazonic acid and T-2 toxin on broiler chicken. Mycopathologia.  2005;159:273–279.

Zhou Hui-Ren R., Islam Zahidul, Pestka James J.. Induction of competing apoptotic and survival signaling pathways in the macrophage by the ribotoxic trichothecene deoxynivalenol. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2005;87:113–122.

Minervini Fiorenza, Fornelli Francesca, Lucivero Giacomo, Romano Ciro, Visconti Angelo. T-2 toxin immunotoxicity on human B and T lymphoid cell lines.  Toxicology.  2005;210:81–91.

Drochner Winfried, Schollenberger Margit, Piepho Hans-Peter P., et al. Serum IgA-promoting effects induced by feed loads containing isolated deoxynivalenol (DON) in growing piglets. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A.  2004;67:1051–1067.

Pestka James J., Zhou Hui-Ren R., Moon Y., Chung Y. J.. Cellular and molecular mechanisms for immune modulation by deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes: unraveling a paradox. Toxicology letters.  2004;153:61–73.

Swamy H. V., Smith T. K., Karrow N. A., Boermans H. J.. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth and immunological parameters of broiler chickens. Poultry science.  2004;83:533–543.

Poapolathep Amnart, Nagata Takayuki, Suzuki Hodaka, Kumagai Susumu, Doi Kunio. Development of early apopotosis and changes in lymphocyte subsets in lymphoid organs of mice orally inoculated with nivalenol. Experimental and molecular pathology.  2003;75:74–79.

Uzarski Rebecca L., Pestka James J.. Comparative susceptibility of B cells with different lineages to cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction by translational inhibitors. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A.  2003;66:2105–2118.

Moon Yuseok, Uzarski Rebecca, Pestka James J.. Relationship of trichothecene structure to COX-2 induction in the macrophage: selective action of type B (8-keto) trichothecenes. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A.  2003;66:1967–1983.

Zielonka L., Gajecki M., Obremski K., Zwierzchowski W.. Influence of low doses of deoxynivalenol applied per os on chosen indexes of immune response in swine. Polish journal of veterinary sciences.  2003;6:74–77.

Pestka James J.. Deoxynivalenol-induced IgA production and IgA nephropathy-aberrant mucosal immune response with systemic repercussions. Toxicology letters.  2003;140-141:287–295.

Chung Yong-Joo J., Yang Gi-Hyeok H., Islam Zahidul, Pestka James J.. Up-regulation of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and complement 3A receptor by the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol and satratoxin G.  Toxicology.  2003;186:51–65.

Yang Gi Hyeok H., Pestka James J.. Vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol)-mediated inhibition of nuclear protein binding to NRE-A, an IL-2 promoter negative regulatory element, in EL-4 cells. Toxicology.  2002;172:169–179.

Sun Xu-Ming M., Zhang Xiang-Hong H., Wang Hui-Yan Y., et al. Effects of sterigmatocystin, deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin G1 on apoptosis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES.  2002;15:145–152.

Berek Lívia, Petri I. B., Mesterházy A., Téren J.. The immunosuppressive effect of Fusarium mycotoxin as a function of HLA antigens. Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica.  2002;49:99–104.

Wong Shu-Shyan S., Zhou Hui-Ren R., Pestka James J.. Effects of vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) on the binding of transcription factors AP-1, NF-kappaB, and NF-IL6 in raw 264.7 macrophage cells. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A.  2002;65:1161–1180.

Moon Yuseok, Pestka James J.. Vomitoxin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression in macrophages mediated by activation of ERK and p38 but not JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2002;69:373–382.

Nielsen Kristian Fog F., Huttunen Kati, Hyvärinen Anne, Andersen Birgitte, Jarvis Bruce B., Hirvonen Maija-Riitta R.. Metabolite profiles of Stachybotrys isolates from water-damaged buildings and their induction of inflammatory mediators and cytotoxicity in macrophages. Mycopathologia.  2002;154:201–205.

Meky F. A., Hardie L. J., Evans S. W., Wild C. P.. Deoxynivalenol-induced immunomodulation of human lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2001;39:827–836.

Sugita-Konishi Y., Pestka J. J.. Differential upregulation of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 production by deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) and other 8-ketotrichothecenes in a human macrophage model. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A.  2001;64:619–636.

Berek L., Petri I. B., Mesterházy A., Téren J., Molnár J.. Effects of mycotoxins on human immune functions in vitro. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA.  2001;15:25–30.

Wong S., Schwartz R. C., Pestka J. J.. Superinduction of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in macrophages by vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) modulated by mRNA stabilization. Toxicology.  2001;161:139–149.

Bondy G. S., Pestka J. J.. Immunomodulation by fungal toxins. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews.  2000;3:109–143.

Wang H., Zhang X., Yang Y., Yan X.. [Effects of deoxynivalenol on proliferation and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro]. Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research.  2000;29:387–389.

Gogal R. M., Smith B. J., Kalnitsky J., Holladay S. D.. Analysis of apoptosis of lymphoid cells in fish exposed to immunotoxic compounds. Cytometry.  2000;39:310–318.

Wang H., Sun X., Zhang X., Zuo L.. [Effect of deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin G1 on apoptosis of human blood lymphocytes in vitro]. Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research.  1999;28:102–104.

Johannisson A., Bjökhag B., Hansson W., Gadhasson I. L., Thuvander A.. Effects of four trichothecene mycotoxins on activation marker expression and cell proliferation of human lymphocytes in culture. Cell biology and toxicology.  1999;15:203–215.

Qureshi M. A., Brundage M. A., Hamilton P. B.. 4 beta, 15-Diacetoxyscirpenol induces cytotoxicity and alterations in phagocytic and Fc-receptor expression functions in chicken macrophages in vitro. Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology.  1998;20:541–553.

Yan D., Zhou H. R., Brooks K. H., Pestka J. J.. Role of macrophages in elevated IgA and IL-6 production by Peyer’s patch cultures following acute oral vomitoxin exposure. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1998;148:261–273.

Ji G. E., Park S. Y., Wong S. S., Pestka J. J.. Modulation of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide and cytokine production in a clonal macrophage model by the trichothecene vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol). Toxicology.  1998;125:203–214.

Leal M., De Mejía E. G., Ruíz F., Shimada A.. Effect of carotenoids on cytotoxicity of T-2 toxin on chicken hepatocytes in vitro.  Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA.  1998;12:133–139.

Wong S. S., Zhou H. R., Marin-Martinez M. L., Brooks K., Pestka J. J.. Modulation of IL-1beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha secretion and mRNA expression by the trichothecene vomitoxin in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Food and chemical toxicology: an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1998;36:409–419.

Lautraite S., Rio B., Guinard J., Parent-Massin D.. In vitro effects of diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) on human and rat granulo-monocytic progenitors. Mycopathologia.  1997;140:59–64.

Lautraite S., Parent-Massin D., Rio B., Hoellinger H.. In vitro toxicity induced by deoxynivalenol (DON) on human and rat granulomonocytic progenitors. Cell biology and toxicology.  1997;13:175–183.

Shinozuka J., Guanmin L., Uetsuka K., Nakayama H., Doi K.. Process of the development of T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in the lymphoid organs of mice. Experimental animals / Japanese Association for Laboratory Animal Science.  1997;46:117–126.

Shinozuka J., Li G., Kiatipattanasakul W., Uetsuka K., Nakayama H., Doi K.. T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in lymphoid organs of mice. Experimental and toxicologic pathology.  1997;49:387–392.

Dugyala R. R., Sharma R. P.. Alteration of major cytokines produced by mitogen-activated peritoneal macrophages and splenocytes in T-2 toxin-treated male CD-1 mice. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology.  1997;3:73–81.

Kidd M. T., Qureshi M. A., Hagler W. M., Ali R.. T-2 tetraol is cytotoxic to a chicken macrophage cell line. Poultry science.  1997;76:311–313.

Hedman R., Thuvander A., Gadhasson I., Reverter M., Pettersson H.. Influence of dietary nivalenol exposure on gross pathology and selected immunological parameters in young pigs. Natural toxins.  1997;5:238–246.

Overnes G., Matre T., Sivertsen T., et al. Effects of diets with graded levels of naturally deoxynivalenol-contaminated oats on immune response in growing pigs. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe A.  1997;44:539–550.

Lautraite S., Parent-Massin D., Rio B., Hoellinger H.. Comparison of toxicity induced by HT-2 toxin on human and rat granulo-monocytic progenitors with an in vitro model. Human & experimental toxicology.  1996;15:208–213.

Ouyang Y. L., Azcona-Olivera J. I., Murtha J., Pestka J. J.. Vomitoxin-Mediated IL-2, IL-4, and IL-5 Superinduction in Murine CD4+ T Cells Stimulated with Phorbol Ester and Calcium Ionophore: Relation to Kinetics of Proliferation Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1996;138:324–334.

Johanning E., Biagini R., Hull D., Morey P., Jarvis B., Landsbergis P.. Health and immunology study following exposure to toxigenic fungi (Stachybotrys chartarum) in a water-damaged office environment. International archives of occupational and environmental health.  1996;68:207–218.

Ouyang Y. L., Li S., Pestka J. J.. Effects of vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) on transcription factor NF-kappa B/Rel binding activity in murine EL-4 thymoma and primary CD4+ T cells. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1996;140:328–336.

Venturini M. C., Quiroga M. A., Risso M. A., et al. Mycotoxin T-2 and aflatoxin B1 as immunosuppressors in mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Journal of comparative pathology.  1996;115:229–237.

Azcona-Olivera J. I., Ouyang Y. L., Warner R. L., Linz J. E., Pestka J. J.. Effects of vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) and cycloheximide on IL-2, 4, 5 and 6 secretion and mRNA levels in murine CD4+ cells. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1995;33:433–441.

Lautraite S., Parent-Massin D., Rio B., Hoellinger H.. Comparison of toxicity induced by T-2 toxin on human and rat granulo-monocytic progenitors with an in vitro model. Human & experimental toxicology.  1995;14:672–678.

Ouyang Y. L., Azcona-Olivera J. I., Pestka J. J.. Effects of trichothecene structure on cytokine secretion and gene expression in murine CD4+ T-cells. Toxicology.  1995;104:187–202.

Holladay S. D., Smith B. J., Luster M. I.. B lymphocyte precursor cells represent sensitive targets of T2 mycotoxin exposure. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1995;131:309–315.

Tani N., Dohi Y., Onji Y., Yonemasu K.. Antiviral activity of trichothecene mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, and nivalenol) against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2. Microbiology and immunology.  1995;39:635–637.

Kidd M. T., Hagler W. M., Qureshi M. A.. Trichothecene mycotoxins depress the mononuclear-phagocytic system of young turkeys. Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology.  1995;17:385–398.

Rafai P., Tuboly S., Bata A., et al. Effect of various levels of T-2 toxin in the immune system of growing pigs. The Veterinary record.  1995;136:511–514.

Pestka J. J., Yan D., King L. E.. Flow cytometric analysis of the effects of in vitro exposure to vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) on apoptosis in murine T, B and IgA+ cells. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1994;32:1125–1136.

Warner R. L., Brooks K., Pestka J. J.. In vitro effects of vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) on T-cell interleukin production and IgA secretion.  Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1994;32:617–625.

Dugyala R. R., Kim Y. W., Sharma R. P.. Effects of aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin on the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells in mouse bone marrow cultures. Immunopharmacology.  1994;27:57–65.

Sharma R. P.. Immunotoxicity of mycotoxins. Journal of dairy science.  1993;76:892–897.

Blaylock B. L., Kouchi Y., Comment C. E., Pollock P. L., Luster M. I.. Topical application of T-2 toxin inhibits the contact hypersensitivity response in BALB/c mice. Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950).  1993;150:5135–5143.

Lang D. S., Meier K. L., Luster M. I.. Comparative effects of immunotoxic chemicals on in vitro proliferative responses of human and rodent lymphocytes. Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1993;21:535–545.

Okazaki K., Yoshizawa T., Kimura S.. Antiviral activity of metabolites of T-2 toxin against herpes simplex virus type 2. Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry.  1992;56:523–524.

Ayral A. M., Dubech N., Le Bars J., Escoula L.. In vitro effect of diacetoxyscirpenol and deoxynivalenol on microbicidal activity of murine peritoneal macrophages. Mycopathologia.  1992;120:121–127.

Visconti A., Minervini F., Lucivero G., Gambatesa V.. Cytotoxic and immunotoxic effects of Fusarium mycotoxins using a rapid colorimetric bioassay.  Mycopathologia.  1991;113:181–186.

Dong W., Sell J. E., Pestka J. J.. Quantitative assessment of mesangial immunoglobulin A (IgA) accumulation, elevated circulating IgA immune complexes, and hematuria during vomitoxin-induced IgA nephropathy.  Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1991;17:197–207.

Mekhancha-Dahel C., Lafarge-Frayssinet C., Frayssinet C.. Immunosuppressive effects of four trichothecene mycotoxins. Food additives and contaminants.  1990;7 Suppl 1.

Witt M. F., Pestka J. J.. Uptake of the naturally occurring 3-alpha-hydroxy isomer of T-2 toxin by a murine B cell hybridoma. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1990;28:21–28.

Chanh T. C., Rappocciolo G., Hewetson J. F.. Monoclonal anti-idiotype induces protection against the cytotoxicity of the trichothecene mycotoxin T-2.  Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950).  1990;144:4721–4728.

Bottex C., Martin A., Fontanges R.. Action of a mycotoxin (diacetoxyscirpenol) on the immune response of the mouse–interaction with an immunomodulator (OM-89). Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology.  1990;12:311–325.

Plasencia F. J., Rosenstein Y.. Effect of in vivo administration of T-2 toxin on peritoneal murine macrophages. Toxicon.  1990;28:559–567.

Paucod J. C., Krivobok S., Vidal D.. Immunotoxicity testing of mycotoxins T-2 and patulin on Balb/c mice. Acta microbiologica Hungarica.  1990;37:331–339.

Pestka J. J., Bondy G. S.. Alteration of immune function following dietary mycotoxin exposure. Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology.  1990;68:1009–1016.

Vidal D., Mavet S.. In vitro and in vivo toxicity of T-2 toxin, a Fusarium mycotoxin, to mouse peritoneal macrophages. Infection and immunity.  1989;57:2260–2264.

Naseem S. M., Hines H. B., Creasia D. A.. Effect of toxins on arachidonic acid metabolism in rat cultured pulmonary alveolar macrophages. Biochemistry international.  1989;19:583–592.

Taylor M. J., Smart R. A., Sharma R. P.. Relationship of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis with chemically induced immunomodulation. I. Stress-like response after exposure to T-2 toxin. Toxicology.  1989;56:179–195.

Hughes B. J., Hsieh G. C., Jarvis B. B., Sharma R. P.. Effects of macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins on the murine immune system. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology.  1989;18:388–395.

Ziprin R. L., McMurray D. N.. Influence of T-2 toxin on BCG vaccine efficacy against murine pulmonary tuberculosis. Veterinary and human toxicology.  1989;31:213–217.

Hughes B. J., Taylor M. J., Sharma R. P.. Effects of verrucarin A and roridin A, macrocyclic trichothecene mycotoxins, on the murine immune system.  Immunopharmacology.  1988;16:79–87.

Büttner M., Bauer J.. The effects of dietary T-2 toxin on the NK-cell activity and on the reactivation of pseudorabies virus in NMRI mice.  Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe B. Journal of veterinary medicine. Series B.  1988;35:421–430.

Niyo K. A., Richard J. L., Niyo Y., Tiffany L. H.. Effects of T-2 mycotoxin ingestion on phagocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia by rabbit alveolar macrophages and on hematologic, serum biochemical, and pathologic changes in rabbits. American journal of veterinary research.  1988;49:1766–1773.

Tomar R. S., Blakley B. R., DeCoteau W. E.. Antibody producing ability of mouse spleen cells after subacute dietary exposure to T-2 toxin.  International journal of immunopharmacology.  1988;10:145–151.

Porcher J. M., Dahel C., Lafarge-Frayssinet C., Chu F. S., Frayssinet C.. Uptake and metabolism of T-2 toxin in relation to its cytotoxicity in lymphoid cells. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1988;26:587–593.

Pestka J. J., Forsell J. H.. Inhibition of human lymphocyte transformation by the macrocyclic trichothecenes roridin A and verrucarin A. Toxicology letters.  1988;41:215–222.

Robbana-Barnat S., Lafarge-Frayssinet C., Cohen H., Neish G. A., Frayssinet C.. Immunosuppressive properties of deoxynivalenol. Toxicology.  1988;48:155–166.

Tomar R. S., Blakley B. R., De Coteau W. E.. In vitro effects of T-2 toxin on the mitogen responsiveness and antibody-producing ability of human lymphocytes. Toxicology letters.  1988;40:109–117.

Holt P. S., Corrier D. E., DeLoach J. R.. Suppressive and enhancing effect of T-2 toxin on murine lymphocyte activation and interleukin 2 production.  Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology.  1988;10:365–385.

Tomar R. S., Blakley B. R., DeCoteau W. E.. Immunological responsiveness of mouse spleen cells after in vivo or in vitro exposure to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1987;25:393–398.

Corrier D. E., Holt P. S., Mollenhauer H. H.. Regulation of murine macrophage phagocytosis of sheep erythrocytes by T-2 toxin. American journal of veterinary research.  1987;48:1304–1307.

Corrier D. E., Ziprin R. L., Mollenhauer H. H.. Modulation of cell-mediated resistance to listeriosis in mice given T-2 toxin. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1987;89:323–331.

Gao Y., Xia Q. J.. [Cultured human peripheral lymphocyte chromosome aberration induced by fusarium T-2 toxin]. Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology].  1987;9:321–324.

Pestka J. J., Tai J. H., Witt M. F., Dixon D. E., Forsell J. H.. Suppression of immune response in the B6C3F1 mouse after dietary exposure to the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) and zearalenone. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1987;25:297–304.

Samara A., Yagen B., Agranat I., Rachmilewitz E. A., Fibach E.. Induction of differentiation in human myeloid leukemic cells by T-2 toxin and other trichothecenes. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1987;89:418–428.

Miller K., Atkinson H. A.. The in vitro effects of trichothecenes on the immune system. Archives of toxicology. Supplement. = Archiv für Toxikologie. Supplement.  1987;11:321–324.

Bergers W. W., Dura E. A., Stap J. G.. Changes in circulatory white blood cells of mice and rats due to acute trichothecene intoxication. Toxicology letters.  1987;36:173–179.

Corrier D. E., Ziprin R. L.. Immunotoxic effects of T-2 mycotoxin on cell-mediated resistance to Listeria monocytogenes infection.  Veterinary immunology and immunopathology.  1987;14:11–21.

Ryu J. C., Ohtsubo K., Izumiyama N., Mori M., Tanaka T., Ueno Y.. Effects of nivalenol on the bone marrow in mice. The Journal of toxicological sciences.  1987;12:11–21.

Corrier D. E., Ziprin R. L.. Immunotoxic effects of T-2 toxin on cell-mediated immunity to listeriosis in mice: comparison with cyclophosphamide.  American journal of veterinary research.  1986;47:1956–1960.

Sorenson W. G., Gerberick G. F., Lewis D. M., Castranova V.. Toxicity of mycotoxins for the rat pulmonary macrophage in vitro. Environmental health perspectives.  1986;66:45–53.

Tomar R. S., Blakley B. R., Schiefer H. B., DeCoteau W. E.. In vitro effects of 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol on the immune response of human peripheral blood lymphocytes. International journal of immunopharmacology.  1986;8:125–130.

Miller K., Atkinson H. A.. The in vitro effects of trichothecenes on the immune system. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1986;24:545–549.

Zhang G. S., Schubring S. L., Chu F. S.. Improved method for production of antibodies against T-2 toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol in rabbits. Applied and environmental microbiology.  1986;51:132–137.

Tryphonas H., Iverson F., So Y., et al. Effects of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) on the humoral and cellular immunity of mice. Toxicology letters.  1986;30:137–150.

Bauer J., Pawlas S.. [Modification of phytomitogen-induced lymphocyte transformation by trichothecene]. Zentralblatt für Veterinärmedizin. Reihe B. Journal of veterinary medicine. Series B.  1985;32:717–723.

Feuerstein G., Powell J. A., Knower A. T., Hunter K. W.. Monoclonal antibodies to T-2 toxin. In vitro neutralization of protein synthesis inhibition and protection of rats against lethal toxemia. The Journal of clinical investigation.  1985;76:2134–2138.

Forsell J. H., Kateley J. R., Yoshizawa T., Pestka J. J.. Inhibition of mitogen-induced blastogenesis in human lymphocytes by T-2 toxin and its metabolites. Applied and environmental microbiology.  1985;49:1523–1526.

Melmed R. N., Ishai-Michaeli R., Yagen B.. Differential inhibition by T-2 toxin of total protein, DNA and isoprenoid synthesis in the culture macrophage cell line J774. Biochemical pharmacology.  1985;34:2809–2812.

DiNinno V. L., Penman D., Bhatti A. R., Erhardt N. P., Lockwood P. A.. In vitro toxicity of T-2 mycotoxin in mouse lymphoid cells. Journal of general microbiology.  1985;131:1833–1835.

Gyongyossy-Issa M. I., Khachatourians G. G.. Interaction of T-2 toxin and murine lymphocytes and the demonstration of a threshold effect on macromolecular synthesis. Biochimica et biophysica acta.  1985;844:167–173.

Taylor M. J., Reddy R. V., Sharma R. P.. Immunotoxicity of repeated low level exposure to T-2 toxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin, in CD-1 mice.  Mycotoxin research.  1985;1:57–64.

Tutel’ian V. A., Levitskaia A. B., Liashenko V. A., Skhodova S. A.. [Comparative study of the effect of T-2 and HT-2 mycotoxins on cellular and humoral immunity]. Gigiena i sanitariia.  1985:66–68.

Atkinson H. A., Miller K.. Inhibitory effect of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol and zearalenone on induction of rat and human lymphocyte proliferation. Toxicology letters.  1984;23:215–221.

Yarom R., Sherman Y., More R., Ginsburg I., Borinski R., Yagen B.. T-2 toxin effect on bacterial infection and leukocyte functions. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1984;75:60–68.

Cooray R.. Effects of some mycotoxins on mitogen-induced blastogenesis and SCE frequency in human lymphocytes. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1984;22:529–534.

Schiefer H. B., Friend S. C., Welch M. K.. Effects of dietary trichothecenes on the immune system of mice. Archives belges = Belgisch archief.  1984;Suppl:220–222.

Mann D. D., Buening G. M., Osweiler G. D., Hook B. S.. Effect of subclinical levels of T-2 toxin on the bovine cellular immune system. Canadian journal of comparative medicine. Revue canadienne de médecine comparée.  1984;48:308–312.

Tryphonas H., O’Grady L., Arnold D. L., McGuire P. F., Karpinski K., Vesonder R. F.. Effect of deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) on the humoral immunity of mice. Toxicology letters.  1984;23:17–24.

Gerberick G. F., Sorenson W. G., Lewis D. M.. The effects of T-2 toxin on alveolar macrophage function in vitro. Environmental research.  1984;33:246–260.

Kanai K., Kondo E.. Decreased resistance to mycobacterial infection in mice fed a trichothecene compound (T-2 toxin). Japanese journal of medical science & biology.  1984;37:97–104.

Gyongyossy-Issa M. I., Khachatourians G. G.. Interaction of T-2 toxin with murine lymphocytes. Biochimica et biophysica acta.  1984;803:197–202.

Friend S. C., Babiuk L. A., Schiefer H. B.. The effects of dietary T-2 toxin on the immunological function and herpes simplex reactivation in Swiss mice. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1983;69:234–244.

Friend S. C., Schiefer H. B., Babiuk L. A.. The effects of dietary T-2 toxin on acute herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in mice. Veterinary pathology.  1983;20:737–760.

Gerberick G. F., Sorenson W. G.. Toxicity of T-2 toxin, a Fusarium mycotoxin, to alveolar macrophages in vitro. Environmental research.  1983;32:269–285.

Masuda E., Takemoto T., Tatsuno T., Obara T.. Induction of suppressor macrophages in mice by Fusarenon-X. Immunology.  1982;47:701–708.

Buening G. M., Mann D. D., Hook B., Osweiler G. D.. The effect of T-2 toxin on the bovine immune system: cellular factors. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology.  1982;3:411–417.

Ito H., Watanabe K., Koyama J.. The immunosuppressive effects of trichothecenes and cyclochlorotine on the antibody responses in guinea pigs. Journal of pharmacobio-dynamics.  1982;5:403–409.

Masuda E., Takemoto T., Tatsuno T., Obara T.. Immunosuppressive effect of a trichothecene mycotoxin, Fusarenon-X in mice. Immunology.  1982;45:743–749.

Jagadeesan V., Rukmini C., Vijayaraghavan M., Tulpule P. G.. Immune studies with T-2 toxin: effect of feeding and withdrawal in monkeys. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1982;20:83–87.

Fromentin H., Salazar-Mejicanos S., Mariat F.. Experimental cryptococcosis in mice treated with diacetoxyscirpenol, a mycotoxin of fusarium.  Sabouraudia.  1981;19:311–313.

Rosenstein Y., Kretschmer R. R., Lafarge-Frayssinet C.. Effect of Fusarium toxins, T2-toxin and diacetoxyscirpenol on murine T-independent immune responses. Immunology.  1981;44:555–560.

Chu F. S., Grossman S., Wei R. D., Mirocha C. J.. Production of antibody against T-2 toxin. Applied and environmental microbiology.  1979;37:104–108.

Brinckerhoff C. E., Lubin M.. Increased tumor immunity in mice inoculated with muconomycin A-treated B16 melanoma cells. Cancer research.  1978;38:3668–3672.

Hartmann G. R., Richter H., Weiner E. M., Zimmermann W.. On the mechanism of action of the cytostatic drug anguidine and of the immunosuppressive agent ovalicin, two sesquiterpenes from fungi. Planta medica.  1978;34:231–252.

Boján F., Dankó G., Krasznai G.. Immunological studies in experimental stachybotryotoxicosis. Acta veterinaria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae.  1976;26:223–233.

Swanstrom R. I., Pivo K., Wagner E. K.. Restricted transcription of the herpes simplex virus genome occurring early after infection and in the presence of metabolic inhibitors. Virology.  1975;66:140–150.

 

Intestinal System Effects

Akbari Peyman, Braber Saskia, Gremmels Hendrik, et al. Deoxynivalenol: a trigger for intestinal integrity breakdown. FASEB journal.  2014.

Kadota Tomoyuki, Furusawa Hiroko, Hirano Satoshi, Tajima Osamu, Kamata Yoichi, Sugita-Konishi Yoshiko. Comparative study of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol on intestinal transport and IL-8 secretion in the human cell line Caco-2. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA.  2013;27:1888–1895.

Halawa Amal, Dänicke Sven, Kersten Susanne, Breves Gerhard. Intestinal transport of deoxynivalenol across porcine small intestines. Archives of animal nutrition.  2013;67:134–146.

Lucioli Joelma, Pinton Philippe, Callu Patrick, et al. The food contaminant deoxynivalenol activates the mitogen activated protein kinases in the intestine: interest of ex vivo models as an alternative to in vivo experiments. Toxicon.  2013;66:31–36.

Kolf-Clauw Martine, Sassahara Marcia, Lucioli Joelma, et al. The emerging mycotoxin, enniatin B1, down-modulates the gastrointestinal toxicity of T-2 toxin in vitro on intestinal epithelial cells and ex vivo on intestinal explants. Archives of toxicology.  2013;87:2233–2241.

Alassane-Kpembi Imourana, Kolf-Clauw Martine, Gauthier Thierry, et al. New insights into mycotoxin mixtures: the toxicity of low doses of Type B trichothecenes on intestinal epithelial cells is synergistic.  Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2013;272:191–198.

Wan Lam Yim Murphy Y., Turner Paul C., El-Nezami Hani. Individual and combined cytotoxic effects of Fusarium toxins (deoxynivalenol, nivalenol, zearalenone and fumonisins B1) on swine jejunal epithelial cells. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2013;57:276–283.

Grenier Bertrand, Applegate Todd J.. Modulation of intestinal functions following mycotoxin ingestion: meta-analysis of published experiments in animals. Toxins.  2013;5:396–430.

Ghareeb Khaled, Awad Wageha A., Soodoi Chimidtseren, Sasgary Soleman, Strasser Alois, Böhm Josef. Effects of feed contaminant deoxynivalenol on plasma cytokines and mRNA expression of immune genes in the intestine of broiler chickens. PloS one.  2013;8.

Osselaere A., Li S. J., De Bock L., et al. Toxic effects of dietary exposure to T-2 toxin on intestinal and hepatic biotransformation enzymes and drug transporter systems in broiler chickens. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2013;55:150–155.

Wan Murphy Lam-Yim L., Woo Chit-Shing Jackson S., Allen Kevin J., Turner Paul C., El-Nezami Hani. Modulation of porcine β-defensins 1 and 2 upon individual and combined Fusarium toxin exposure in a swine jejunal epithelial cell line. Applied and environmental microbiology.  2013;79:2225–2232.

Cano Patricia M., Seeboth Julie, Meurens François, et al. Deoxynivalenol as a new factor in the persistence of intestinal inflammatory diseases: an emerging hypothesis through possible modulation of Th17-mediated response. PloS one.  2013;8.

Yunus Agha Waqar W., Kröger Susan, Tichy Alexander, Zentek Jürgen, Böhm Josef. Electrophysiological response of chicken’s jejunal epithelium to increasing levels of T-2 toxin. Mycotoxin research.  2013;29:23–27.

Klunker L. R., Kahlert S., Panther P., et al. Deoxynivalenol and E.coli lipopolysaccharide alter epithelial proliferation and spatial distribution of apical junction proteins along the small intestinal axis. Journal of animal science.  2013;91:276–285.

Bianco Giuseppe, Fontanella Bianca, Severino Lorella, Quaroni Andrea, Autore Giuseppina, Marzocco Stefania. Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol affect rat intestinal epithelial cells: a concentration related study. PloS one.  2012;7.

Smith Laura E., Stoltzfus Rebecca J., Prendergast Andrew. Food chain mycotoxin exposure, gut health, and impaired growth: a conceptual framework.  Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.).  2012;3:526–531.

Dietrich B., Neuenschwander S., Bucher B., Wenk C.. Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated wheat containing deoxynivalenol alters the gene expression in the liver and the jejunum of broilers. Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience.  2012;6:278–291.

Pinton Philippe, Tsybulskyy Dima, Lucioli Joelma, et al. Toxicity of deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives on the intestine: differential effects on morphology, barrier function, tight junction proteins, and mitogen-activated protein kinases. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology.  2012;130:180–190.

Awad W. A., Aschenbach J. R., Zentek J.. Cytotoxicity and metabolic stress induced by deoxynivalenol in the porcine intestinal IPEC-J2 cell line. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition.  2012;96:709–716.

Pacheco Graziela Drociunas D., Silva Caio Abércio da A., Pinton Philippe, Oswald Isabelle P., Bracarense Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro P.. Phytic acid protects porcine intestinal epithelial cells from deoxynivalenol (DON) cytotoxicity. Experimental and toxicologic pathology.  2012;64:345–347.

Wu Qinghua, Engemann Anna, Cramer Benedikt, Welsch Tanja, Yuan Zonghui, Humpf Hans-Ulrich U.. Intestinal metabolism of T-2 toxin in the pig cecum model. Mycotoxin research.  2012;28:191–198.

Yunus A. W., Blajet-Kosicka A., Kosicki R., Khan M. Z., Rehman H., Böhm J.. Deoxynivalenol as a contaminant of broiler feed: intestinal development, absorptive functionality, and metabolism of the mycotoxin. Poultry science.  2012;91:852–861.

Goossens Joline, Pasmans Frank, Verbrugghe Elin, et al. Porcine intestinal epithelial barrier disruption by the Fusarium mycotoxins deoxynivalenol and T-2 toxin promotes transepithelial passage of doxycycline and paromomycin. BMC veterinary research.  2012;8:245+.

Diesing Anne-Kathrin K., Nossol Constanze, Ponsuksili Siriluck, et al. Gene regulation of intestinal porcine epithelial cells IPEC-J2 is dependent on the site of deoxynivalenol toxicological action. PloS one.  2012;7.

Diesing Anne-Kathrin K., Nossol Constanze, Dänicke Sven, et al. Vulnerability of polarised intestinal porcine epithelial cells to mycotoxin deoxynivalenol depends on the route of application. PloS one.  2011;6.

Diesing Anne-Kathrin K., Nossol Constanze, Panther Patricia, et al. Mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) mediates biphasic cellular response in intestinal porcine epithelial cell lines IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2. Toxicology letters.  2011;200:8–18.

Kruber Pierre, Trump Saskia, Behrens Johann, Lehmann Irina. T-2 toxin is a cytochrome P450 1A1 inducer and leads to MAPK/p38- but not aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent interleukin-8 secretion in the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2. Toxicology.  2011;284:34–41.

De Walle Jacqueline Van V., Sergent Thérèse, Piront Neil, Toussaint Olivier, Schneider Yves-Jacques J., Larondelle Yvan. Deoxynivalenol affects in vitro intestinal epithelial cell barrier integrity through inhibition of protein synthesis. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2010;245:291–298.

Van De Walle Jacqueline, During Alexandrine, Piront Neil, Toussaint Olivier, Schneider Yves-Jacques J., Larondelle Yvan. Physio-pathological parameters affect the activation of inflammatory pathways by deoxynivalenol in Caco-2 cells. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA.  2010;24:1890–1898.

Girish C. K., Smith T. K., Boermans H. J., Anil Kumar P., Girgis G. N.. Effects of dietary Fusarium mycotoxins on intestinal lymphocyte subset populations, cell proliferation and histological changes in avian lymphoid organs.  Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2010;48:3000–3007.

Yu Hai, Zhou Ting, Gong Jianhua, et al. Isolation of deoxynivalenol-transforming bacteria from the chicken intestines using the approach of PCR-DGGE guided microbial selection. BMC microbiology.  2010;10.

Yang Hyun, Park Seong Hwan H., Choi Hye Jin J., et al. Mechanism-based alternative monitoring of endoplasmic reticulum stress by 8-keto-trichothecene mycotoxins using human intestinal epithelial cell line. Toxicology letters.  2010;198:317–323.

Girgis George N., Barta John R., Girish Channarayapatna K., Karrow Niel A., Boermans Herman J., Smith Trevor K.. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins and an organic mycotoxin adsorbent on immune cell dynamics in the jejunum of chickens infected with Eimeria maxima. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology.  2010;138:218–223.

Dänicke S., Hegewald Anne-Kathrin K., Kahlert S., et al. Studies on the toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON), sodium metabisulfite, DON-sulfonate (DONS) and de-epoxy-DON for porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the Intestinal Porcine Epithelial Cell lines IPEC-1 and IPEC-J2, and on effects of DON and DONS on piglets. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2010;48:2154–2162.

Pinton Philippe, Braicu Cornelia, Nougayrede Jean-Philippe P., Laffitte Joëlle, Taranu Ionelia, Oswald Isabelle P.. Deoxynivalenol impairs porcine intestinal barrier function and decreases the protein expression of claudin-4 through a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism. The Journal of nutrition.  2010;140:1956–1962.

Kolf-Clauw Martine, Castellote Jessie, Joly Benjamin, et al. Development of a pig jejunal explant culture for studying the gastrointestinal toxicity of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol: histopathological analysis. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA.  2009;23:1580–1584.

Waché Yann J., Valat Charlotte, Postollec Gilbert, et al. Impact of deoxynivalenol on the intestinal microflora of pigs. International journal of molecular sciences.  2009;10:1–17.

Pinton Philippe, Nougayrède Jean-Philippe P., Del Rio Juan-Carlos C., et al. The food contaminant deoxynivalenol, decreases intestinal barrier permeability and reduces claudin expression. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2009;237:41–48.

Yang Hyun, Chung Duk Hwa H., Kim Yung Bu B., Choi Yung Hyun H., Moon Yuseok. Ribotoxic mycotoxin deoxynivalenol induces G2/M cell cycle arrest via p21Cip/WAF1 mRNA stabilization in human epithelial cells.  Toxicology.  2008;243:145–154.

Obremski K., Zielonka L., Gajecka M., et al. Histological estimation of the small intestine wall after administration of feed containing deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin and zearalenone in the pig. Polish journal of veterinary sciences.  2008;11:339–345.

Awad W. A., Razzazi-Fazeli E., Böhm J., Zentek J.. Effects of B-trichothecenes on luminal glucose transport across the isolated jejunal epithelium of broiler chickens. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition.  2008;92:225–230.

Moon Yuseok, Yang Hyun, Park Seung-Hwan H.. Hypo-responsiveness of interleukin-8 production in human embryonic epithelial intestine 407 cells independent of NF-kappaB pathway: new lessons from endotoxin and ribotoxic deoxynivalenol. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2008;231:94–102.

Maresca Marc, Yahi Nouara, Younès-Sakr Lama, Boyron Marilyn, Caporiccio Bertrand, Fantini Jacques. Both direct and indirect effects account for the pro-inflammatory activity of enteropathogenic mycotoxins on the human intestinal epithelium: stimulation of interleukin-8 secretion, potentiation of interleukin-1beta effect and increase in the transepithelial passage of commensal bacteria. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  2008;228:84–92.

Turner P. C., Wu Q. K., Piekkola S., Gratz S., Mykkänen H., El-Nezami H.. Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG restores alkaline phosphatase activity in differentiating Caco-2 cells dosed with the potent mycotoxin deoxynivalenol. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2008;46:2118–2123.

Awad Wageha, Ghareeb Khaled, Böhm Josef, Zentek Jürgen. A nutritional approach for the management of deoxynivalenol (DON) toxicity in the gastrointestinal tract of growing chickens. International journal of molecular sciences.  2008;9:2505–2514.

Van De Walle Jacqueline, Romier Béatrice, Larondelle Yvan, Schneider Yves-Jacques J.. Influence of deoxynivalenol on NF-kappaB activation and IL-8 secretion in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Toxicology letters.  2008;177:205–214.

Videmann Bernadette, Tep Jonathan, Cavret Séverine, Lecoeur Sylvaine. Epithelial transport of deoxynivalenol: involvement of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2). Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2007;45:1938–1947.

Kouadio James H., Dano Sébastien D., Moukha Serge, Mobio Théophile A., Creppy Edmond E.. Effects of combinations of Fusarium mycotoxins on the inhibition of macromolecular synthesis, malondialdehyde levels, DNA methylation and fragmentation, and viability in Caco-2 cells. Toxicon.  2007;49:306–317.

Awad W. A., Aschenbach J. R., Setyabudi F. M., Razzazi-Fazeli E., Böhm J., Zentek J.. In vitro effects of deoxynivalenol on small intestinal D-glucose uptake and absorption of deoxynivalenol across the isolated jejunal epithelium of laying hens. Poultry science.  2007;86:15–20.

Moon Yuseok, Yang Hyun, Lee Soo Hyung H.. Modulation of early growth response gene 1 and interleukin-8 expression by ribotoxin deoxynivalenol (vomitoxin) via ERK1/2 in human epithelial intestine 407 cells. Biochemical and biophysical research communications.  2007;362:256–262.

Bony S., Olivier-Loiseau L., Carcelen M., Devaux A.. Genotoxic potential associated with low levels of the Fusarium mycotoxins nivalenol and fusarenon X in a human intestinal cell line. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA.  2007;21:457–465.

Awad W. A., Razzazi-Fazeli E., Böhm J., Zentek J.. Influence of deoxynivalenol on the D-glucose transport across the isolated epithelium of different intestinal segments of laying hens. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition.  2007;91:175–180.

Awad W. A., Böhm J., Razzazi-Fazeli E., Zentek J.. Effects of feeding deoxynivalenol contaminated wheat on growth performance, organ weights and histological parameters of the intestine of broiler chickens. Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition.  2006;90:32–37.

Sergent Thérèse, Parys Marie, Garsou Serge, Pussemier Luc, Schneider Yves-Jacques J., Larondelle Yvan. Deoxynivalenol transport across human intestinal Caco-2 cells and its effects on cellular metabolism at realistic intestinal concentrations. Toxicology letters.  2006;164:167–176.

Awad W. A., Rehman H., Böhm J., Razzazi-Fazeli E., Zentek J.. Effects of luminal deoxynivalenol and L-proline on electrophysiological parameters in the jejunums of laying hens. Poultry science.  2005;84:928–932.

Zerull K., Breves G., Schröder B., Goyarts B., Dänicke S.. The influence of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol on jejunal glucose transport in pigs. Mycotoxin research.  2005;21:251–257.

Kouadio James H., Mobio Théophile A., Baudrimont Isabelle, Moukha Serge, Dano Sébastien D., Creppy Edmond E.. Comparative study of cytotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by deoxynivalenol, zearalenone or fumonisin B1 in human intestinal cell line Caco-2. Toxicology.  2005;213:56–65.

Awad W. A., Böhm J., Razzazi-Fazeli E., Zentek J.. In vitro effects of deoxynivalenol on electrical properties of intestinal mucosa of laying hens. Poultry science.  2005;84:921–927.

Awad W. A., Böhm J., Razzazi-Fazeli E., Hulan H. W., Zentek J.. Effects of deoxynivalenol on general performance and electrophysiological properties of intestinal mucosa of broiler chickens. Poultry science.  2004;83:1964–1972.

Avantaggiato Giuseppina, Havenaar Robert, Visconti Angelo. Evaluation of the intestinal absorption of deoxynivalenol and nivalenol by an in vitro gastrointestinal model, and the binding efficacy of activated carbon and other adsorbent materials. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  2004;42:817–824.

Poapolathep Amnart, Ohtsuka Ryoichi, Kiatipattanasakul Wijit, Ishigami Noriaki, Nakayama Hiroyuki, Doi Kunio. Nivalenol–induced apoptosis in thymus, spleen and Peyer’s patches of mice. Experimental and toxicologic pathology.  2002;53:441–446.

Maresca Marc, Mahfoud Radhia, Garmy Nicolas, Fantini Jacques. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol affects nutrient absorption in human intestinal epithelial cells. The Journal of nutrition.  2002;132:2723–2731.

Nagata T., Suzuki H., Ishigami N., et al. Development of apoptosis and changes in lymphocyte subsets in thymus, mesenteric lymph nodes and Peyer’s patches of mice orally inoculated with T-2 toxin. Experimental and toxicologic pathology.  2001;53:309–315.

Madej M., Lundh T., Lindberg J. E.. Effect of exposure to dietary nivalenol on activity of enzymes involved in glutamine catabolism in the epithelium along the gastrointestinal tract of growing pigs. Archiv für Tierernährung.  1999;52:275–284.

Kasuga F., Hara-Kudo Y., Saito N., Kumagai S., Sugita-Konishi Y.. In vitro effect of deoxynivalenol on the differentiation of human colonic cell lines Caco-2 and T84. Mycopathologia.  1998;142:161–167.

Yan D., Zhou H. R., Brooks K. H., Pestka J. J.. Potential role for IL-5 and IL-6 in enhanced IgA secretion by Peyer’s patch cells isolated from mice acutely exposed to vomitoxin. Toxicology.  1997;122:145–158.

Li J., Shimizu T., Miyoshi N., Yasuda N.. Rapid apoptotic changes in the gastric glandular epithelium of rats administered intraperitoneally with fusarenon-X. The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science.  1997;59:17–22.

Li G., Shinozuka J., Uetsuka K., Nakayama H., Doi K.. T-2 toxin-induced apoptosis in intestinal crypt epithelial cells of mice. Experimental and toxicologic pathology.  1997;49:447–450.

Ito E., Terao K.. Injury and recovery process of intestine caused by okadaic acid and related compounds. Natural toxins.  1994;2:371–377.

Rasooly L., Abouzied M. M., Brooks K. H., Pestka J. J.. Polyspecific and autoreactive IgA secreted by hybridomas derived from Peyer’s patches of vomitoxin-fed mice: characterization and possible pathogenic role in IgA nephropathy. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1994;32:337–348.

Ji X., Ke Y., Ning T., Liang Y., Wang D., Shi G.. Effects of sterigmatocystin and T-2 toxin on the induction of unscheduled DNA synthesis in primary cultures of human gastric epithelial cells. Natural toxins.  1994;2:115–119.

Hunder G., Schümann K., Strugala G., Gropp J., Fichtl B., Forth W.. Influence of subchronic exposure to low dietary deoxynivalenol, a trichothecene mycotoxin, on intestinal absorption of nutrients in mice.  Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1991;29:809–814.

Bondy G. S., Pestka J. J.. Dietary exposure to the trichothecene vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol) stimulates terminal differentiation of Peyer’s patch B cells to IgA secreting plasma cells. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1991;108:520–530.

Pestka J. J., Dong W., Warner R. L., Rasooly L., Bondy G. S., Brooks K. H.. Elevated membrane IgA+ and CD4+ (T helper) populations in murine Peyer’s patch and splenic lymphocytes during dietary administration of the trichothecene vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol). Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association.  1990;28:409–420.

Pestka J. J., Moorman M. A., Warner R. L.. Altered serum immunoglobulin response to model intestinal antigens during dietary exposure to vomitoxin (deoxynivalenol). Toxicology letters.  1990;50:75–84.

Williams P. P.. Effects of T-2 mycotoxin on gastrointestinal tissues: a review of in vivo and in vitro models. Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology.  1989;18:374–387.

Morishita Y., Nagasawa K., Nakano N., Shiromizu K.. Bacterial overgrowth in the jejunum of ICR mice and Wistar rats orally administered with a single lethal dose of fusarenon-X, a trichothecene mycotoxin. The Journal of applied bacteriology.  1989;66:263–270.

Lun A. K., Moran E. T., Young L. G., McMillan E. G.. Disappearance of deoxynivalenol from digesta progressing along the chicken’s gastrointestinal tract after intubation with feed containing contaminated corn. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology.  1988;40:317–324.

Kumagai S., Shimizu T.. Effects of fusarenon-X and T-2 toxin on intestinal absorption of monosaccharide in rats. Archives of toxicology.  1988;61:489–495.

Conrady-Lorck S., Gareis M., Feng X. C., Amselgruber W., Forth W., Fichtl B.. Metabolism of T-2 toxin in vascularly autoperfused jejunal loops of rats. Toxicology and applied pharmacology.  1988;94:23–33.

Ziprin R. L., Corrier D. E., Ziegler H. K.. T-2 toxin-enhanced resistance against listeriosis in mice: importance of gastrointestinal lesions.  American journal of veterinary research.  1987;48:998–1002.

Fioramonti J., Fargeas M. J., Bueno L.. Action of T-2 toxin on gastrointestinal transit in mice: protective effect of an argillaceous compound.  Toxicology letters.  1987;36:227–232.

Beasley V. R., Lundeen G. R., Poppenga R. H., Buck W. B.. Distribution of blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract of swine during T-2 toxin-induced shock. Fundamental and applied toxicology.  1987;9:588–594.

Matsuoka Y., Kubota K.. [Studies of mechanisms of diarrhea induced by fusarenon-X, a trichothecene mycotoxin from Fusarium species; the effects of fusarenon-X and various cathartics on the digestion and the absorption of the mouse intestine]. Yakugaku zasshi : Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan.  1985;105:77–82.

Suneja S. K., Ram G. C., Wagle D. S.. Effects of T-2 toxin on glucose and tryptophan uptake and intestinal mucosal enzymes. Toxicon.  1984;22:39–43.

Suneja S. K., Ram G. C., Wagle D. S.. Effects of feeding T-2 toxin on RNA, DNA and protein contents of liver and intestinal mucosa of rats.  Toxicology letters.  1983;18:73–76.

Bukowski R., Vaughn C., Bottomley R., Chen T.. Phase II study of anguidine in gastrointestinal malignancies: a Southwest Oncology Group study. Cancer treatment reports.  1982;66:381–383.

Matsuoka Y., Kubota K.. Studies on mechanisms of diarrhea induced by fusarenon-X, a trichothecene mycotoxin from Fusarium species; characteristics of increased intestinal absorption rate induced by fusarenon-X. Journal of pharmacobio-dynamics.  1982;5:193–199.

Morel-Chany E., Burtin P., Trincal G., Frayssinet C.. Cytostatic effects of T2 toxin on cultured human neoplastic cells of intestinal origin. Bulletin du cancer.  1980;67:149–154.

Schoental R.. The role of fusarium mycotoxins in the aetiology of tumours of the digestive tract and of certain other organs in man and animals.  Frontiers of gastrointestinal research.  1979;4:17–24.

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