Health Effects of Stachybotrys Chartarum – Respiratory Issues

 

 

This page lists medical journal articles discussing respiratory issues associated with Stachybotrys exposures.

The Health Effects of Stachybotrys Chartarum page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this toxic mold.

 

Bhan U, Newstead MJ, Zeng X, Podsaid A, Goswami M, Ballinger MN, Kunkel SL, Standiford TJ. TLR9-dependent IL-23/IL-17 is required for the generation of Stachybotrys chartarum-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis. J Immunol. 2013 Jan 1;190(1):349-56. PMID: 23180821

The researchers developed a murine model of S. chartarum-induced hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) that reproduces pathology observed in human HP, and we have hypothesized that TLR9-mediated IL-23 and IL-17 responses are required for the generation of granulomatous inflammation induced by inhaled S. chartarum. The study results suggest that TLR9 is critical for the development of Th17-mediated granulomatous inflammation in the lung in response to S. chartarum.

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Cai GH, Hashim JH, Hashim Z, et al. Fungal DNA, allergens, mycotoxins and associations with asthmatic symptoms among pupils in schools from Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Pediatric allergy and immunology. 2011;22:290– 297.

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Blanc A-L L., Delhaes L., Copin M-C C., Stach B., Faivre J-B B., Wallaert B.. Interstitial lung disease due to domestic moulds. Revue des maladies respiratoires. 2011;28:913–918. PMID: 21943538

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Nagayoshi M, Tada Y, West J, Ochiai E, Watanabe A, Toyotome T, Tanabe N, Takiguchi Y, Shigeta A, Yasuda T, Shibuya K, Kamei K, Tatsumi K. Inhalation of Stachybotrys chartarum evokes pulmonary arterial remodeling in mice, attenuated by Rho-kinase inhibitor. Mycopathologia. 2011;172:5–15. PMID: 21505873

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Lichtenstein JH, Molina RM, Donaghey TC, Amuzie CJ, Pestka JJ, Coull BA, Brain JD. Pulmonary responses to Stachybotrys chartarum and its toxins: mouse strain affects clearance and macrophage cytotoxicity. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2010;116:113–121. PMID: 20385656

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Rand TG, Miller JD. Immunohistochemical and immunocytochemical detection of SchS34 antigen in Stachybotrys chartarum spores and spore impacted mouse lungs. Mycopathologia. 2008;165:73–80. PMID: 18046622

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Kováciková Z, Tátrai E, Piecková E, Tulinska J, Pivovarova Z, Matausic-Pisl M, Kuricova M, Wsolova L. An in vitro study of the toxic effects of Stachybotrys chartarum metabolites on lung cells. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA. 2007;35:47–52. PMID: 17411351

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Mader DR, Yike I, Distler AM, Dearborn DG. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage during isoflurane anesthesia in two cats exposed to toxic black mold (Stachybotrys chartarum). Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2007;231:731–735. PMID: 17764432

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McCrae KC, Rand TG, Shaw RA, Mantsch HH, Sowa MG, Thliveris JA, Scott JE. DNA fragmentation in developing lung fibroblasts exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) toxins. Pediatric pulmonology. 2007;42:592–599. PMID: 17534970

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Vesper Stephen J., McKinstry Craig, Yang Chin, et al. Specific molds associated with asthma in water-damaged homes. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2006;48:852–858.

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Rand TG, Flemming J, David Miller J, Womiloju TO. Comparison of inflammatory responses in mouse lungs exposed to atranones A and C from Stachybotrys chartarum. J Toxicol Environ Health A 2006 Jul; 69(13): 1239051. PMID: 16754538

This study examined dose-response and time-course relationships associated with inflammatory cell and proinflammatory chemokine/cytokine responses in mouse lungs intratracheally instilled with two pure atranones (either A or C) isolated from S. chartarum. The results suggest not only that atranones are inflammatory but also that they exhibit different inflammatory potency with different toxicokinetics. Data also suggest that exposure to these toxins in spores of S. chartarum in contaminated building environments could contribute to inflammatory lung disease onset in susceptible individuals.

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Leino MS, Alenius HT, Fyhrquist-Vanni N, Wolff HJ, Reijula KE, Hintikka EL, Salkinoja-Salonen MS, Haahela T, Makela MJ. Intranasal exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum enhances airway inflammation in allergic mice. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine. 2006;173:512–518. PMID: 16322647

Because an atopic predisposition may influence the response to microbes, we examined the effects of S. chartarum on allergic mice in an experimental model. Despite the enhancement of the pulmonary inflammatory reaction, exposure to S. chartarum spores significantly down-regulated airway hyperresponsiveness and showed a tendency to decrease levels of Th2 cytokines in the lung. The researchers concluded that exposure to S. chartarum modulates the inflammatory reaction and airway hyperresponsiveness, depending on the allergic status of the exposed mice.

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Pieckova E, Hurbankova M, Cerna S, Pivovarova Z, Kovacikova Z. Pulmonary cytotoxicity of secondary metabolites of Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenb.) Hughes. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2006;13(2):259-62. PMID: 17195998

The cytotoxic effects of complex chloroform-extractable endo- (in biomass) and exometabolites (in cultivation medium) of an indoor S. chartarum isolate of an atranone chemotype. Acute exposure to the metabolites caused statistically significant changes, indicating lung tissue injury in the experimental animals. Decreased AM viability and increased activity of lysosomal enzyme cathepsin D in BAL cells after fungal exometabolite exposure were the most impressive. As toxic principles were found predominantly in the growth medium, toxins were more likely responsible for lung cell damage than e.g. fungal cell wall components. S. chartarum toxic metabolites can contribute to the ill health of occupants of mouldy building after inhalation of contaminated aerosol.

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Abdeen N, Cross A, Cron G, White S, Rand T, Miller D, Santyr G. Measurement of xenon diffusing capacity in the rat lung by hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI and dynamic spectroscopy in a single breath-hold. Magnetic resonance in medicine. 2006;56:255–264. PMID: 16767751

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Rosenblum Lichtenstein JH, Molina RM, Donaghey TC, Brain JD. Strain differences influence murine pulmonary responses to Stachybotrys chartarum. American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology. 2006;35:415– 423. PMID: 16690987

When the fungus Stachybotrys chartarum is inhaled, its mycotoxins may cause lung injury and inflammation. The researchers intratracheally instilled C3H/HeJ, BALB/c, and C57BL/6J mice with S. chartarum spores suspended in saline. One day later, the mice were humanely killed, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was performed, and biochemical and cellular indicators of lung injury and inflammation were measured. A model of allergen-induced airway inflammation was examined to assess whether underlying allergic inflammation might contribute to increased susceptibility to S. chartarum-induced pulmonary inflammation and injury. Surprisingly, in BALB/c mice, ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation produced a protective effect against some S. chartarum-induced pulmonary responses.

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Hudson B, Flemming J, Sun G, Rand TG. Comparison of immunomodulator mRNA and protein expression in the lungs of Stachybotrys chartarum spore-exposed mice. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A. 2005;68:1321–1335. PMID: 16020192

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Purdy CW, Layton RC, Straus DC, Ayers JR. Virulence of fungal spores determined by tracheal inoculation of goats following inhalation of aerosolized sterile feedyard dust. American journal of veterinary research. 2005;66:615–622. PMID: 15900941

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Yike I, Rand TG, Dearborn DG. Acute inflammatory responses to Stachybotrys chartarum in the lungs of infant rats: time course and possible mechanisms. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2005;84:408–417. PMID: 15647601

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Yike Iwona, Dearborn Dorr G.. Pulmonary effects of Stachybotrys chartarum in animal studies. Advances in applied microbiology. 2004;55:241–273. PMID: 15350797

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Gregory L, Pestka JJ, Dearborn DG, Rand TG. Localization of satratoxin-G in Stachybotrys chartarum spores and spore-impacted mouse lung using immunocytochemistry. Toxicologic pathology. 2004;32:26–34. PMID: 14713545

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Flemming J, Hudson B, Rand T. G. Comparison of inflammatory and cytotoxic lung responses in mice after intratracheal exposure to spores of two different Stachybotrys chartarum strains. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2004;78:267–275. PMID: 14718650

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Leino M, Mäkelä M, Reijula K, Haahtela T, Mussalo-Rauhamaa H, Tuomi T, Hintikka EL, Alenius H. Intranasal exposure to a damp building mould, Stachybotrys chartarum, induces lung inflammation in mice by satratoxin-independent mechanisms. Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2003;33:1603–1610. PMID: 14616875

The study results indicate that lung inflammation induced by intranasal instillations of S. chartarum spores is regulated by the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and leucocyte-attracting chemokines. The data also imply that S. chartarum-derived components, other than satratoxins, are mediating the development of this inflammatory response.

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Rand TG, White K, Logan A, Gregory L. Histological, Immunohistochemical and Morphometric Changes in Lung Tissue in Juvenile Mice Experimentally Exposed to Stachybotrys Chartarum Spores. Mycopathologia. 2003: 156:119-131. PMID: 12733633.

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Gregory L, Rand TG, Dearborn D, Yike I, Vesper S. Immunocytochemical Localization of Stachylysin in Stachybotrys Chartarum Spores and Spore-Impacted Mouse and Rat Lung Tissue. Mycopathologia. 2003: 156: 109-117. PMID: 12733732

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Korpi A., Kasanen J-P P., Kosma V-M M., Rylander R., Pasanen A-L L.. Slight respiratory irritation but not inflammation in mice exposed to (1–>3)-beta-D-glucan aerosols. Mediators of inflammation. 2003;12:139–146. PMID: 12857597

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Yike I, Vesper S, Tomashefski JF, Dearborn DG. Germination, viability and clearance of Stachybotrys chartarum in the lungs of infant rats. Mycopathologia. 2003;156:67–75. PMID: 12733626

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Viana Michael E., Coates Najwa Haykal H., Gavett Stephen H., Selgrade MaryJane K., Vesper Stephen J., Ward Marsha D.. An extract of Stachybotrys chartarum causes allergic asthma-like responses in a BALB/c mouse model. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2002;70:98–109.

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Korpi A, Kasanen JP, Raunio P, Kosma VM, Virtanen T, Pasanen AL. Effects of aerosols from nontoxic Stachybotrys chartarum on murine airways. Inhalation toxicology. 2002;14:521–540. PMID: 12028806

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Weiss A, Chidekel AS. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage in a Delaware infant after exposure to Stachybotrys atra. Delaware medical journal. 2002;74:363–368. PMID: 12360638

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Vesper SJ, Vesper MJ. Stachylysin may be a cause of hemorrhaging in humans exposed to Stachybotrys chartarum. Infection and immunity. 2002;70:2065– 2069. PMID: 11895972

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Dearborn DG, Smith PG, Dahms BB, Allan TM, Sorenson WG, Montana E, Etzel RA. Clinical profile of 30 infants with acute pulmonary hemorrhage in Cleveland. Pediatrics. 2002;110:627–637. PMID: 12205270

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Meklin T, Husman T, Vepsäläinen A, Vahteristo M, Koivisto J, Halla-Aho J, Hyvarinen A, Moschandreas D, Nevalainen A. Indoor air microbes and respiratory symptoms of children in moisture damaged and reference schools. Indoor air. 2002;12:175–183. PMID: 12244747

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Hodgson M, Dearborn DG. Human pulmonary disease and exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum and other toxigenic fungi. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 2002;44:705–707. PMID: 12185790

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Yike I, Miller MJ, Sorenson WG, Walenga R, Tomashefski JF, Dearborn DG. Infant animal model of pulmonary mycotoxicosis induced by Stachybotrys chartarum. Mycopathologia. 2002;154:139–152. PMID: 12171446

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Thorn J., Brisman J., Torén K.. Adult-onset asthma is associated with self-reported mold or environmental tobacco smoke exposures in the home. Allergy. 2001;56:287–292.

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McCrae KC, Rand T, Shaw RA, Mason C, Oulton MR, Hastings C, Cherlet T, Thilveris JA, Mantsch HH, MacDonald J, Scott JE. Analysis of pulmonary surfactant by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy following exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) spores. Chemistry and physics of lipids. 2001;110:1–10. PMID: 11245829

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . Update: Pulmonary hemorrhage/ hemosiderosis among infants–Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 2000;49:180–184. PMID: 11795499

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Rao CY, Brain JD, Burge HA. Reduction of pulmonary toxicity of Stachybotrys chartarum spores by methanol extraction of mycotoxins. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2000;66:2817–2821. PMID: 10877773

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Vesper S. J., Dearborn D. G., Elidemir O., Haugland R. A.. Quantification of siderophore and hemolysin from Stachybotrys chartarum strains, including a strain isolated from the lung of a child with pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2000;66:2678–2681.

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From the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: pulmonary hemorrhage/ hemosiderosis among infants–Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association. 2000;283:1951–1953.

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Vesper S., Dearborn D. G., Yike I., et al. Evaluation of Stachybotrys chartarum in the house of an infant with pulmonary hemorrhage: quantitative assessment before, during, and after remediation. Journal of urban health : bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2000;77:68–85.

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Novotny W. E., Dixit A.. Pulmonary hemorrhage in an infant following 2 weeks of fungal exposure. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. 2000;154:271–275.

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Tripi P. A., Modlin S., Sorenson W. G., Dearborn D. G.. Acute pulmonary haemorrhage in an infant during induction of general anaesthesia. Paediatric anaesthesia. 2000;10:92–94.

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Sudakin D. L.. Mycotoxins and pulmonary hemorrhage. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. 1999;153:205–206.

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Flappan S. M., Portnoy J., Jones P., Barnes C.. Infant pulmonary hemorrhage in a suburban home with water damage and mold (Stachybotrys atra). Environmental health perspectives. 1999;107:927–930.

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Knapp J. F., Michael J. G., Hegenbarth M. A., Jones P. E., Black P. G.. Case records of the Children’s Mercy Hospital, Case 02-1999: a 1-month-old infant with respiratory distress and shock. Pediatric emergency care. 1999;15:288–293.

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Elidemir O., Colasurdo G. N., Rossmann S. N., Fan L. L.. Isolation of Stachybotrys from the lung of a child with pulmonary hemosiderosis. Pediatrics. 1999;104:964–966.

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Hodgson M. J., Morey P., Leung W. Y., et al. Building-associated pulmonary disease from exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum and Aspergillus versicolor. Journal of occupational and environmental medicine / American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 1998;40:241–249.

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Wilkins C. K., Larsen S. T., Hammer M., Poulsen O. M., Wolkoff P., Nielsen G. D.. Respiratory effects in mice exposed to airborne emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum and implications for risk assessment. Pharmacology & toxicology. 1998;83:112–119.

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Mason C. D., Rand T. G., Oulton M., MacDonald J. M., Scott J. E.. Effects of Stachybotrys chartarum (atra) conidia and isolated toxin on lung surfactant production and homeostasis. Natural toxins. 1998;6:27–33.

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Jarvis B. B., Sorenson W. G., Hintikka E. L., et al. Study of toxin production by isolates of Stachybotrys chartarum and Memnoniella echinata isolated during a study of pulmonary hemosiderosis in infants. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1998;64:3620–3625.

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Etzel R. A., Montaña E., Sorenson W. G., et al. Acute pulmonary hemorrhage in infants associated with exposure to Stachybotrys atra and other fungi. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine. 1998;152:757–762.

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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) . Update: pulmonary hemorrhage/ hemosiderosis among infants–Cleveland, Ohio, 1993-1996. MMWR. Morbidity and mortality weekly report. 1997;46:33–35.

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Nikulin M., Reijula K., Jarvis B. B., Veijalainen P., Hintikka E. L.. Effects of intranasal exposure to spores of Stachybotrys atra in mice. Fundamental and applied toxicology. 1997;35:182–188.

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Nikulin M., Reijula K., Jarvis B. B., Hintikka E. L.. Experimental lung mycotoxicosis in mice induced by Stachybotrys atra. International journal of experimental pathology. 1996;77:213–218.

 

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