Penitrem A – Toxin Production

 

 

This page lists medical journal articles discussing factors affecting the production of penitrem A by molds.

The Health Effects of Penitrem A page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this mycotoxin.

 

Kalinina SA, Jagels A, Cramer B, Geisen R, Humpf HU. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Production of Penitrems A-F by Penicillium crustosum. Toxins (Basel). 2017 Jul 1;9(7). PMID: 28671569

This is the first complex study of the penitrems A-F production under the influence of different abiotic factors, e.g., media, incubation time, temperature, pH, light, water activity, and carbon and nitrogen source as well as oxidative and salt stress. Among the carbon sources, glucose supplemented to the media at the concentration of 50 g/L, showed the strongest inducing effect on the biosynthesis of penitrems. Among nitrogen sources, glutamate was found to be the most favorable supplement, significantly increasing production of these secondary metabolites. CuSO4-promoted oxidative stress was also shown to remarkably stimulate biosynthesis of all penitrems. In contrast, the salt stress, caused by the elevated concentrations of NaCl, showed an inhibitory effect on the penitrem biosynthesis. Finally, cheese model medium elicited exceptionally high production of all members of the penitrems family.

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Kokkonen Meri, Jestoi Marika, Rizzo Aldo. The effect of substrate on mycotoxin production of selected Penicillium strains. International journal of food microbiology. 2005;99:207–214.

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Sumarah Mark W., Miller J. David, Blackwell Barbara A.. Isolation and metabolite production by Penicillium roqueforti, P. paneum and P. crustosum isolated in Canada. Mycopathologia. 2005;159:571–577.

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Rundberget Thomas, Skaar Ida, OʼBrien Oloff, Flåøyen Arne. Penitrem and thomitrem formation by Penicillium crustosum. Mycopathologia. 2004;157:349–357.

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Overy David Patrick P., Frisvad Jens Christian C.. New Penicillium species associated with bulbs and root vegetables. Systematic and applied microbiology. 2003;26:631– 639.

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Rundberget Thomas, Wilkins Alistair L.. Thomitrems A and E, two indole-alkaloid isoprenoids from Penicillium crustosum Thom. Phytochemistry. 2002;61:979–985.

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Surekha M., Reddy S. M.. Effect of carbon and nitrogen sources on the production of penitrem B by Penicillium aurantiogriseum. Folia microbiologica. 1992;37:47–49.

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Mantle P. G., Laws I., Tan M. J., Tizard M.. A novel process for the production of penitrem mycotoxins by submerged fermentation of Penicillium nigricans. Journal of general microbiology. 1984;130:1293–1298.

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Mantle P. G., Perera K. P., Maishman N. J., Mundy G. R.. Biosynthesis of penitrems and roquefortine by Penicillium crustosum. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1983;45:1486–1490.

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Wagener R. E., Davis N. D., Diener U. L.. Penitrem A and Roquefortine Production by Penicillium commune. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1980;39:882–887.

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Malaiyandi M., Vesonder R. F., Ciegler A.. Large scale production, purification and a study of some spectral properties of Penitrem A. Journal of environmental science and health. Part. B, Pesticides, food contaminants, and agricultural wastes. 1976;11:139– 164.

 

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