This page lists medical journal articles discussing the presence of penitrem A in biowaste and in food.
The Health Effects of Penitrem A page of the Paradigm Change site provides further information on the effects of this mycotoxin.
Presence in Biowaste
Fischer G., Müller T., Schwalbe R., Ostrowski R., Dott W.. Species-specific profiles of mycotoxins produced in cultures and associated with conidia of airborne fungi derived from biowaste. International journal of hygiene and environmental health. 2000;203:105–116. PMID: 11109562
The potential to produce mycotoxins and non-volatile secondary metabolites was investigated for approximately 250 freshly isolated fungal strains. Among the eleven most relevant species, viz. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. parasiticus, A. versicolor, Emericella nidulans, Paecilomyces variotii, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. clavigerum, P. crustosum, and P. polonicum, a wide range of metabolites partly of toxicological relevance was identified. Several unknown metabolites were found for the less frequent species, which were primarily investigated for chemotaxonomic delimitation from closely related species. The spectra of metabolites in conidial extracts and culture extracts (containing also mycelium and medium) were compared for a limited number of relevant fungi. Some mycotoxins, such as sterigmatocystin in Emericella nidulans, were not present in the conidial extracts, though produced by most strains. Fumigaclavine C, tryptoquivaline, and trypacidin, characteristic for A. fumigatus, were found in conidial extracts, but highly toxic compounds such as gliotoxin and fumitremorgens were not present. Finally, compounds such as cyclopenol, cyclopenin, and penitrem A being characteristic for certain penicillia, were found in conidial extracts and are therefore assumed to occur in native bioaerosols.
Presence in Food
Hallas-Møller M, Nielsen KF, Frisvad JC. Production of the Fusarium Mycotoxin Moniliformin by Penicillium melanoconidium. J Agric Food Chem. 2016 Jun 8;64(22):4505-10. PMID: 27195914
Moniliformin is a mycotoxin produced by several cereal associated Fusaria. Here, we show for the first time that moniliformin can be produced by the cereal fungus, Penicillium melanoconidium (4 out of 4 strains), but not in the related species in the Viridicata series. Wheat and beans were artificially infected by P. melanoconidium containing up to 64 and 11 mg/kg moniliformin, respectively, while penicillic acid, roquefortine C, and penitrem A levels in wheat were up to 1095, 38, and 119 mg/kg, respectively.
Camardo Leggieri M, Decontardi S, Bertuzzi T, Pietri A, Battilani P. Modeling Growth and Toxin Production of Toxigenic Fungi Signaled in Cheese under Different Temperature and Water Activity Regimes. Toxins (Basel). 2016 Dec 24;9(1).PMID: 28029129
Santini A, Mikušová P, Sulyok M, Krska R, Labuda R, Srobárová A. Penicillium strains isolated from Slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile. Mycotoxin Res. 2014 Nov;30(4):213-20. PMID: 25109845
The secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus Penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in Slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. The species Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Penicillium palitans and Penicillium polonicum were identified according to growth and morphology. The related strains were found to produce a broad spectrum of fungal metabolites, including roquefortine C, chaetoglobosin A, penitrem A, cyclopeptin, cyclopenin, viridicatin, methylviridicatin, verrucofortine, secalonic acid D, cyclopiazonic acid, fumigaclavine and mycophenolic acid.
Lorenzini M., Azzolini M., Tosi E., Zapparoli G.. Postharvest grape infection of Botrytis cinerea and its interactions with other moulds under withering conditions to produce noble-rotten grapes. Journal of applied microbiology. 2013;114:762–770.
Kačániová Miroslava, Kňazovická Vladimíra, Felšöciová Soňa, Rovná Katarína. Microscopic fungi recovered from honey and their toxinogenity. Journal of environmental science and health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous substances & environmental engineering. 2012;47:1659–1664.
Kim Ji Yeun Y., Yeo Soo-Hwan H., Baek Sung Yeol Y., Choi Hye Sun S.. Molecular and morphological identification of fungal species isolated from bealmijang meju. Journal of microbiology and biotechnology. 2011;21:1270–1279.
Lugauskas Albinas, Repeckiene Jūrate, Novosinskas Henrikas. Micromycetes, producers of toxins, detected on stored vegetables. Annals of agricultural and environmental medicine : AAEM. 2005;12:253–260.
Rundberget Thomas, Skaar Ida, Flåøyen Arne. The presence of Penicillium and Penicillium mycotoxins in food wastes. International journal of food microbiology. 2004;90:181–188.
Bünger Jürgen, Westphal Götz, Mönnich Angelika, Hinnendahl Britta, Hallier Ernst, Müller Michael. Cytotoxicity of occupationally and environmentally relevant mycotoxins. Toxicology. 2004;202:199–211. PMID: 15337583
Overy David P., Seifert Keith A., Savard Marc E., Frisvad Jens C.. Spoilage fungi and their mycotoxins in commercially marketed chestnuts. International journal of food microbiology. 2003;88:69–77.
Rundberget Thomas, Wilkins Alistair L.. Determination of Penicillium mycotoxins in foods and feeds using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Journal of chromatography. A. 2002;964:189–197.
Larsen Thomas Ostenfeld O., Gareis Manfred, Frisvad Jens Christian C.. Cell cytotoxicity and mycotoxin and secondary metabolite production by common penicillia on cheese agar. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2002;50:6148–6152. PMID: 12358494
Freire F. C., Kozakiewicz Z., Paterson R. R.. Mycoflora and mycotoxins in Brazilian black pepper, white pepper and Brazil nuts. Mycopathologia. 2000;149:13–19.
Jelinek C. F., Pohland A. E., Wood G. E.. Worldwide occurrence of mycotoxins in foods and feeds–an update. Journal – Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1989;72:223–230.
Banna A. A., Leistner L.. Production of penitrem A by Penicillium crustosum isolated from foodstuffs. International journal of food microbiology. 1988;7:9–17.
Richard J. L., Arp L. H.. Natural occurrence of the mycotoxin penitrem A in moldy cream cheese. Mycopathologia. 1979;67:107–109.
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