Aflatoxin Literature: Immune System

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Kocabaş C. N., Sekerel B. E.. Does systemic exposure to aflatoxin B(1) cause allergic sensitization?  Allergy.  2003;58:363–365.



Li P, Wu J, Zhang L, Fan Z, Yu T, Jiang F, Tang X, Zhang Z, Zhang W, Zhang Q. Doses of Immunogen Contribute to Specificity Spectrums of Antibodies against Aflatoxin. Toxins (Basel). 2017 May 19;9(5). PMID: 28534846

Soukhtanloo M, Talebian E, Golchin M, Mohammadi M, Amirheidari B. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against aflatoxin B1. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2014;35(4):335-43. PMID: 24350626

Yang Lian, Zhang Yanhong, Ding Husheng, Wang Liyun, Chen Wei, Zhang Hao. Expression and optimization of anti-AFB1 scFv in Escherichia coli. Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica. 2009;49:880–888.

Zhang Jinyang, Li Peiwu, Zhang Wen, et al. Production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against aflatoxin g(1). Hybridoma (2005). 2009;28:67–70.

Wang J. S., Abubaker S., He X., Sun G., Strickland P. T., Groopman J. D.. Development of aflatoxin B(1)-lysine adduct monoclonal antibody for human exposure studies. Applied and environmental microbiology. 2001;67:2712–2717.

Li Y, Han C., Zhang J., Luo X.. [Establishment of monoclonal antibodies against aflatoxin M1]. Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research. 2000;29:59–60.

Lu G., Liu B., Liu C., Wang D., Cao M.. Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies against aflatoxin B1. Chinese journal of biotechnology. 1995;11:253–258.

Groopman J. D., Roebuck B. D., Kensler T. W.. Application of monoclonal antibodies and dietary antioxidant-based animal models to define human exposure to aflatoxin B1. Progress in experimental tumor research. 1987;31:52–62.

Groopman J. D.. Application of monoclonal antibodies to monitor human exposure to aflatoxin B1. Basic life sciences. 1986;38:463–471.

Chu F. S., Ueno I.. Production of antibody against aflatoxin B1. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1977;33:1125–1128.


Additional Articles

Ma L, Wang J, Zhang Y. Probing the Characterization of the Interaction of Aflatoxins B1 and G1 with Calf Thymus DNA In Vitro. Toxins (Basel). 2017 Jul 1;9(7). PMID: 28671585

Zhou H, George S, Hay C, Lee J, Qian H, Sun X. Individual and combined effects of Aflatoxin B1, Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone on HepG2 and RAW 264.7 cell lines. Food Chem Toxicol. 2017 May;103:18-27. PMID: 28223122

Bayram S, Rencüzoğulları E, Almas AM, Genç A. Effect of p53 Arg72Pro polymorphism on the induction of micronucleus by aflatoxinB1 in in vitro in human blood lymphocytes. Drug Chem Toxicol. 2016;39(3):331-7. PMID: 26738694

Peng X, Chen K, Chen J, Fang J, Cui H, Zuo Z, Deng J, Chen Z, Geng Y, Lai W. Aflatoxin B1 affects apoptosis and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 in thymus and bursa of fabricius in broiler chickens. Environ Toxicol. 2016 Sep;31(9):1113-20. PMID: 25736028

Peng X, Bai S, Ding X, Zeng Q, Zhang K, Fang J. Pathological changes in the immune organs of broiler chickens fed on corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2. Avian Pathol. 2015;44(3):192-9. PMID: 25734871

Mehrzad J, Devriendt B, Baert K, Cox E. Aflatoxins of type B and G affect porcine dendritic cell maturation in vitro. J Immunotoxicol. 2015 Apr-Jun;12(2):174-80. PMID: 24870031

Mehrzad J, Devriendt B, Baert K, Cox E. Aflatoxin B₁ interferes with the antigen-presenting capacity of porcine dendritic cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2014 Jun;28(4):531-7. PMID: 24389110

Peng X, Zhang K, Bai S, Ding X, Zeng Q, Yang J, Fang J, Chen K. Histological lesions, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and T cell subsets changes of spleen in chicken fed aflatoxin-contaminated corn. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014 Aug 20;11(8):8567-80. PMID: 25141002

Mohammadi A, Mehrzad J, Mahmoudi M, Schneider M. Environmentally Relevant Level of Aflatoxin B1 Dysregulates Human Dendritic Cells Through Signaling on Key Toll-Like Receptors. Int J Toxicol. 2014 May;33(3):175-186. PMID: 24626284

Al-Hammadi S, Marzouqi F, Al-Mansouri A, Shahin A, Al-Shamsi M, Mensah-Brown E, Souid AK. The cytotoxicity of aflatoxin b1 in human lymphocytes. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J. 2014 Feb;14(1):e65-71. PMID: 24516756

Bahari A, Mehrzad J, Mahmoudi M, Bassami MR, Dehghani H. Cytochrome P450 isoforms are differently up-regulated in aflatoxin B₁-exposed human lymphocytes and monocytes. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2014 Feb;36(1):1-10. PMID: 24168324

Luongo D, Russo R, Balestrieri A, Marzocco S, Bergamo P, Severino L. In vitro study of AFB1 and AFM1 effects on human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell model. J Immunotoxicol. 2014 Oct;11(4):353-8. PMID: 24147459

Mehrzad J, Milani M, Mahmoudi M. Naturally occurring level of mixed aflatoxins B and G stimulate toll-like receptor-4 in bovine mononuclear cells. Vet Q. 2013 Dec;33(4):186-90. PMID: 24404862

Yunus AW, Böhm J. Temporary modulation of responses to common vaccines and serum cation status in broilers during exposure to low doses of aflatoxin B1. Poult Sci. 2013 Nov;92(11):2899-903. PMID: 24135593

Malvandi Amir Mohammad M., Mehrzad Jalil, Saleh-Moghaddam Masoud. Biologically relevant doses of mixed aflatoxins B and G upregulate MyD88, TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 transcripts in human PBMCs. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2013 Aug;35(4):528-32.

Chen Kejie, Shu Gang, Peng Xi, et al. Protective role of sodium selenite on histopathological lesions, decreased T-cell subsets and increased apoptosis of thymus in broilers intoxicated with aflatoxin B1. Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association. 2013;59:446–454.

Yunus A. W., Böhm J.. Temporary modulation of responses to common vaccines and serum cation status in broilers during exposure to low doses of aflatoxin B1. Poultry science. 2013;92:2899–2903.

Qian Guoqing, Tang Lili, Guo Xia, et al. Aflatoxin B1 modulates the expression of phenotypic markers and cytokines by splenic lymphocytes of male F344 rats. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. 2013.

Chen Kejie, Yuan Shibin, Chen Jin, et al. Effects of sodium selenite on the decreased percentage of T cell subsets, contents of serum IL-2 and IFN-γ induced by aflatoxin B₁ in broilers. Research in veterinary science. 2013;95:143–145.

Biologically relevant doses of mixed aflatoxins B and G up-regulate MyD88, TLR2, TLR4 and CD14 transcripts in human PBMCs. Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology. 2013.

Luongo D., Russo R., Balestrieri A., Marzocco S., Bergamo P., Severino L.. In vitro study of AFB1 and AFM1 effects on human lymphoblastoid Jurkat T-cell model. Journal of immunotoxicology. 2013.

Bahari Abbas, Mehrzad Jalil, Mahmoudi Mahmoud, Bassami Mohammad Reza R., Dehghani Hesam. Cytochrome P450 isoforms are differently up-regulated in aflatoxin B1-exposed human lymphocytes and monocytes. Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology. 2013.

Weaver Alexandra C., See M. Todd, Hansen Jeff A., et al. The Use of Feed Additives to Reduce the Effects of Aflatoxin and Deoxynivalenol on Pig Growth, Organ Health and Immune Status during Chronic Exposure. Toxins. 2013;5:1261–1281.

Bianco G., Russo R., Marzocco S., Velotto S., Autore G., Severino L.. Modulation of macrophage activity by aflatoxins B1 and B2 and their metabolites aflatoxins M1 and M2. Toxicon. 2012;59:644–650.

Bruneau Johanna C., Stack Edwina, O’Kennedy Richard, Loscher Christine E.. Aflatoxins B(1), B(2) and G(1) modulate cytokine secretion and cell surface marker expression in J774A.1 murine macrophages. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. 2012;26:686–693.

Oznurlu Y., Celik I., Sur E., Ozaydın T., Oğuz H., Altunbaş K.. Determination of the effects of aflatoxin B1 given in ovo on the proximal tibial growth plate of broiler chickens: histological, histometric and immunohistochemical findings. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A. 2012;41:469–477.

Queiroz O. C., Han J. H., Staples C. R., Adesogan A. T.. Effect of adding a mycotoxin-sequestering agent on milk aflatoxin M₁ concentration and the performance and immune response of dairy cattle fed an aflatoxin B₁-contaminated diet. Journal of dairy science. 2012;95:5901–5908.

Abbès Samir, Salah-Abbès Jalila Ben B., Sharafi Hakimeh, Jebali Rania, Noghabi Kambiz Akbari A., Oueslati Ridha. Ability of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GAF01 to remove AFM(1) in vitro and to counteract AFM(1) immunotoxicity in vivo. Journal of immunotoxicology. 2012.

Bagherzadeh Kasmani F., Karimi Torshizi M. A., Allameh A., Shariatmadari F.. A novel aflatoxin-binding Bacillus probiotic: Performance, serum biochemistry, and immunological parameters in Japanese quail. Poultry science. 2012;91:1846–1853.

Ul-Hassan Zahoor, Khan Muhammad Zargham Z., Khan Ahrar, Javed Ijaz. Immunological status of the progeny of breeder hens kept on ochratoxin A (OTA)- and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-contaminated feeds. Journal of immunotoxicology. 2012;9:381–391.

Nazar F. N., Magnoli A. P., Dalcero A. M., Marin R. H.. Effect of feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 and administration of exogenous corticosterone on Japanese quail biochemical and immunological parameters. Poultry science. 2012;91:47–54.

Chaytor A. C., See M. T., Hansen J. A., Souza A. L., Middleton T. F., Kim S. W.. Effects of chronic exposure of diets with reduced concentrations of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on growth and immune status of pigs. Journal of animal science. 2011;89:124–135.

Mehrzad J., Klein G., Kamphues J., Wolf P., Grabowski N., Schuberth H. J.. In vitro effects of very low levels of aflatoxin B₁ on free radicals production and bactericidal activity of bovine blood neutrophils. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology. 2011;141:16–25.

Sirajudeen M., Gopi Kandasamy, Tyagi Jagbir Singh S., Moudgal Ram Phal P., Mohan Jag, Singh Ram. Protective effects of melatonin in reduction of oxidative damage and immunosuppression induced by aflatoxin B1-contaminated diets in young chicks. Environmental toxicology. 2011;26:153–160.

Abbès Samir, Ben Salah-Abbès Jalila, Abdel-Wahhab Mosaad A., Ouslati Ridha. Immunotoxicological and biochemical effects of aflatoxins in rats prevented by Tunisian montmorillonite with reference to HSCAS. Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology. 2010;32:514–522.

Taranu Ionelia, Marina Daniela E., Burlacu Radu, Pinton Phillipe, Damian Virgil, Oswald Isabelle P.. Comparative aspects of in vitro proliferation of human and porcine lymphocytes exposed to mycotoxins. Archives of animal nutrition. 2010;64:383–393.

Wada Kenji, Nabae Akiko, Higuchi Hidetoshi, Nagahata Hajime. Effects of mycotoxins on chemiluminescent response and cytokine mRNA expression of bovine neutrophils. The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science. 2010;72:1507–1511.

Wada Kenji, Hashiba Yayoi, Ohtsuka Hiromichi, et al. Effects of mycotoxins on mitogen-stimulated proliferation of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The Journal of veterinary medical science / the Japanese Society of Veterinary Science. 2008;70:193–196.

Ubagai Tsuneyuki, Tansho Shigeru, Ito Tadashi, Ono Yasuo. Influences of aflatoxin B1 on reactive oxygen species generation and chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Toxicology in vitro : an international journal published in association with BIBRA. 2008;22:1115–1120.

Meissonnier Guylaine M., Pinton Philippe, Laffitte Joëlle, et al. Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2008;231:142–149.

Sabourin Patrick J., Price Jennifer A., Casbohm Stacy L., et al. Evaluation of Acute Immunotoxicity of Aerosolized Aflatoxin B(1) in Female C57BL/6N Mice. Journal of immunotoxicology. 2006;3:11–20.

More Tukaram, Ramalinga Reddy Golla, Kumar Sandeep. An evaluation of the metabolic basis of aflatoxin B1 toxicity by using buffalo granulocytes and agranulocytes in vitro. Alternatives to laboratory animals : ATLA. 2005;33:387–390.

Otim Maxwell O., Mukiibi-Muka G., Christensen Henrik, Bisgaard Magne. Aflatoxicosis, infectious bursal disease and immune response to Newcastle disease vaccination in rural chickens. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A. 2005;34:319–323.

Jiang Yi, Jolly Pauline E., Ellis William O., Wang Jia-Sheng S., Phillips Timothy D., Williams Jonathan H.. Aflatoxin B1 albumin adduct levels and cellular immune status in Ghanaians. International immunology. 2005;17:807–814.

Banlunara Wijit, Bintvihok Anong, Kumagai Susumu. Immunohistochemical study of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in duckling liver fed with aflatoxin B1 and esterified glucomannan. Toxicon. 2005;46:954–957.

Verma J., Johri T. S., Swain B. K., Ameena S.. Effect of graded levels of aflatoxin, ochratoxin and their combinations on the performance and immune response of broilers. British poultry science. 2004;45:512–518.

Shivachandra S. B., Sah R. L., Singh S. D., Kataria J. M., Manimaran K.. Immunosuppression in broiler chicks fed aflatoxin and inoculated with fowl adenovirus serotype-4 (FAV-4) associated with hydropericardium syndrome. Veterinary research communications. 2003;27:39–51.

Hinton Dennis M., Myers Michael J., Raybourne Richard A., et al. Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in rats: effects on lymphocytes and the inflammatory response in a chronic intermittent dosing study. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2003;73:362–377.

Sur E., Celik I.. Effects of aflatoxin B1 on the development of the bursa of Fabricius and blood lymphocyte acid phosphatase of the chicken. British poultry science. 2003;44:558–566.

Burkin A. A., Kononenko G. P., Soboleva N. A.. [Products of spontaneous conjugation of aflatoxins with bovine serum albumin: immunochemical properties]. Prikladnaia biokhimiia i mikrobiologiia. 2003;39:228–236.

Levkutová M., Levkut M., Hipíková V., Tomková I., Conková E., Laciaková A.. Immune response of E. cuniculi infected mice to aflatoxin B1. Immunopharmacology and immunotoxicology. 2003;25:431–439.

Turner Paul C., Moore Sophie E., Hall Andrew J., Prentice Andrew M., Wild Christopher P.. Modification of immune function through exposure to dietary aflatoxin in Gambian children. Environmental health perspectives. 2003;111:217–220.

Theumer M. G., López A. G., Masih D. T., Chulze S. N., Rubinstein H. R.. Immunobiological effects of AFB1 and AFB1-FB1 mixture in experimental subchronic mycotoxicoses in rats. Toxicology. 2003;186:159–170.

Wilkinson J., Rood D., Minior D., Guillard K., Darre M., Silbart L. K.. Immune response to a mucosally administered aflatoxin B1 vaccine. Poultry science. 2003;82:1565–1572.

Liu Biing-Hui H., Yu Feng-Yih Y., Chan Ming-Huan H., Yang Yi-Ling L.. The effects of mycotoxins, fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1, on primary swine alveolar macrophages. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 2002;180:197–204.

Sun Xu-Ming M., Zhang Xiang-Hong H., Wang Hui-Yan Y., et al. Effects of sterigmatocystin, deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin G1 on apoptosis of human peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro. Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES. 2002;15:145–152.

Tomková I., Sevcíková Z., Levkut M., et al. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on CD3 T cells and alkaline phosphatase in the intestine of mice. Mycopathologia. 2002;154:15–19.

Marin D. E., Taranu I., Bunaciu R. P., et al. Changes in performance, blood parameters, humoral and cellular immune responses in weanling piglets exposed to low doses of aflatoxin. Journal of animal science. 2002;80:1250–1257.

Sahoo P. K., Mukherjee S. C.. Immunosuppressive effects of aflatoxin B1 in Indian major carp (Labeo rohita). Comparative immunology, microbiology and infectious diseases. 2001;24:143–149.

Nuntharatanapong N., Suramana T., Chaemthavorn S., et al. Increase in tumour necrosis factor-alpha and a change in the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern in plasma of workers exposed to aflatoxin-contaminated feeds. Arhiv za higijenu rada i toksikologiju. 2001;52:291–298.

Cheng Y. H., Shen T. F., Pang V. F., Chen B. J.. Effects of aflatoxin and carotenoids on growth performance and immune response in mule ducklings. Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Toxicology & pharmacology : CBP. 2001;128:19–26.

Sahoo P. K., Mukherjee S. C.. Effect of dietary beta-1,3 glucan on immune responses and disease resistance of healthy and aflatoxin B1-induced immunocompromised rohu (Labeo rohita Hamilton). Fish & shellfish immunology. 2001;11:683–695.

Moon E. Y., Rhee D. K., Pyo S.. Alteration of kinase-mediated signalings in murine peritoneal macrophages by aflatoxin B(1). Cancer letters. 2000;155:9–17.

Preisler V., Caspary W. J., Hoppe F., Hagen R., Stopper H.. Aflatoxin B1-induced mitotic recombination in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells. Mutagenesis. 2000;15:91–97.

Barton C. C., Ganey P. E., Roth R. A.. Lipopolysaccharide augments aflatoxin B(1)-induced liver injury through neutrophil-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology. 2000;58:208–215.

Burkin M. A., Iakovleva I. V., Sviridov V. V., Burkin A. A., Kononenko G. P., Soboleva H. A.. [Comparative immunochemical characteristics of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies to aflatoxin B1]. Prikladnaia biokhimiia i mikrobiologiia. 2000;36:575–581.

Ottinger C. A., Kaattari S. L.. Long-term immune dysfunction in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed as embryos to aflatoxin B1. Fish & shellfish immunology. 2000;10:101–106.

Fernández A., Hernández M., Verde M. T., Sanz M.. Effect of aflatoxin on performance, hematology, and clinical immunology in lambs. Canadian journal of veterinary research = Revue canadienne de recherche vétérinaire. 2000;64:53–58.

Moon E. Y., Pyo S.. Aflatoxin B(1) inhibits CD14-mediated nitric oxide production in murine peritoneal macrophages. International journal of immunopharmacology. 2000;22:237–246.

Odunola O. A., Uwalfo A. O.. Immune response to aflatoxin B1-histone H1 complex. African journal of medicine and medical sciences. 2000;29:105–110.

Celik I., Oğuz H., Demet O., Dönmez H. H., Boydak M., Sur E.. Efficacy of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone in reducing the immunotoxicity of aflatoxin in growing broilers. British poultry science. 2000;41:430–439.

Moon E. Y., Rhee D. K., Pyo S.. Inhibition of various functions in murine peritoneal macrophages by aflatoxin B1 exposure in vivo. International journal of immunopharmacology. 1999;21:47–58.

Moon E. Y., Rhee D. K., Pyo S.. Involvement of NO, H2O2 and TNF-alpha in the reduced antitumor activity of murine peritoneal macrophages by aflatoxin B1. Cancer letters. 1999;136:167–176.

Wang H., Sun X., Zhang X., Zuo L.. [Effect of deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin G1 on apoptosis of human blood lymphocytes in vitro]. Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research. 1999;28:102–104.

Rossano F., Ortega De Luna L., Buommino E., Cusumano V., Losi E., Catania M. R.. Secondary metabolites of Aspergillus exert immunobiological effects on human monocytes. Research in microbiology. 1999;150:13–19.

Moon E. Y., Rhee D. K., Pyo S.. In vitro suppressive effect of aflatoxin B1 on murine peritoneal macrophage functions. Toxicology. 1999;133:171–179.

Gabal M. A., Dimitri R. A.. Humoral immunosuppressant activity of aflatoxin ingestion in rabbits measured by response to Mycobacterium bovis antigens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and serum protein electrophoresis. Mycoses. 1998;41:303–308.

Mocchegiani E., Corradi A., Santarelli L., et al. Zinc, thymic endocrine activity and mitogen responsiveness (PHA) in piglets exposed to maternal aflatoxicosis B1 and G1. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology. 1998;62:245–260.

Qureshi M. A., Brake J., Hamilton P. B., Hagler W. M., Nesheim S.. Dietary exposure of broiler breeders to aflatoxin results in immune dysfunction in progeny chicks. Poultry science. 1998;77:812–819.

Azzam A. H., Gabal M. A.. Aflatoxin and immunity in layer hens. Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A. 1998;27:570–577.

Moon E. Y., Han J. J., Rhee D. K., Pyo S.. Aflatoxin B1-induced suppression of nitric oxide production in murine peritoneal macrophages. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part A. 1998;55:517–530.

Venturini M. C., Quiroga M. A., Risso M. A., et al. Mycotoxin T-2 and aflatoxin B1 as immunosuppressors in mice chronically infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Journal of comparative pathology. 1996;115:229–237.

Silvotti L., Petterino C., Bonomi A., Cabassi E.. Immunotoxicological effects on piglets of feeding sows diets containing aflatoxins. The Veterinary record. 1997;141:469–472.

Wilson A. S., Williams D. P., Davis C. D., Tingle M. D., Park B. K.. Bioactivation and inactivation of aflatoxin B1 by human, mouse and rat liver preparations: effect on SCE in human mononuclear leucocytes. Mutation research. 1997;373:257–264.

Marin M. L., Murtha J., Dong W., Pestka J. J.. Effects of mycotoxins on cytokine production and proliferation in EL-4 thymoma cells. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. 1996;48:379–396.

Cusumano V., Rossano F., Merendino R. A., et al. Immunobiological activities of mould products: functional impairment of human monocytes exposed to aflatoxin B1. Research in microbiology. 1996;147:385–391.

Dugyala R. R., Sharma R. P.. The effect of aflatoxin B1 on cytokine mRNA and corresponding protein levels in peritoneal macrophages and splenic lymphocytes. International journal of immunopharmacology. 1996;18:599–608.

Dimitri R. A., Gabal M. A.. Immunosuppressant activity of aflatoxin ingestion in rabbits measured by response to Mycobacterium bovis antigen I. Cell mediated immune response measured by skin test reaction. Veterinary and human toxicology. 1996;38:333–336.

Wilson A. S., Tingle M. D., Kelly M. D., Park B. K.. Evaluation of the generation of genotoxic and cytotoxic metabolites of benzo[a]pyrene, aflatoxin B1, naphthalene and tamoxifen using human liver microsomes and human lymphocytes. Human & experimental toxicology. 1995;14:507–515.

Cusumano V., Costa G. B., Trifiletti R., Merendino R. A., Mancuso G.. Functional impairment of rat Kupffer cells induced by aflatoxin B1 and its metabolites. FEMS immunology and medical microbiology. 1995;10:151–155.

Dugyala R. R., Kim Y. W., Sharma R. P.. Effects of aflatoxin B1 and T-2 toxin on the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells in mouse bone marrow cultures. Immunopharmacology. 1994;27:57–65.

Rainbow L., Maxwell S. M., Hendrickse R. G.. Ultrastructural changes in murine lymphocytes induced by aflatoxin B1. Mycopathologia. 1994;125:33–39.

Belokrylov G. A., Derevnina O. N., Popova O. Ia a.. [Immuno- and phagocytosis-modulating properties of low doses of aflatoxin B1 and benzene]. Biulleten’ eksperimental’noĭ biologii i meditsiny. 1994;117:158–160.

Sharma R. P.. Immunotoxicity of mycotoxins. Journal of dairy science. 1993;76:892–897.

Potchinsky M. B., Bloom S. E.. Selective aflatoxin B1-induced sister chromatid exchanges and cytotoxicity in differentiating B and T lymphocytes in vivo. Environmental and molecular mutagenesis. 1993;21:87–94.

Raisuddin S., Singh K. P., Zaidi S. I., Paul B. N., Ray P. K.. Immunosuppressive effects of aflatoxin in growing rats. Mycopathologia. 1993;124:189–194.

Astashkin E. I., Nikolaeva I. S., Riabichenko V. V., Prikhod’ko A. Z.. [The effect of aflatoxin B1 on the human lymphocyte blast transformation reaction]. Eksperimental’naia i klinicheskaia farmakologiia. 1993;56:30–32.

Verma R. J., Raval P. J.. Alterations in erythrocytes during induced chronic aflatoxicosis in rabbits. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology. 1992;49:861–865.

Kurtz R. S., Czuprynski C. J.. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro production of interleukin-1 by bovine mononuclear phagocytes. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology. 1992;34:149–158.

Neldon-Ortiz D. L., Qureshi M. A.. The effects of direct and microsomal activated aflatoxin B1 on chicken peritoneal macrophages in vitro. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology. 1992;31:61–76.

Neldon-Ortiz D. L., Qureshi M. A.. Effects of AFB1 embryonic exposure on chicken mononuclear phagocytic cell functions. Developmental and comparative immunology. 1992;16:187–196.

Cukrová V., Kurita N., Akao M.. Alterations in the growth and cycling status of granulocyte-monocyte colony-forming units (CFU-GM) in rats injected single doses of aflatoxin B1. Neoplasma. 1992;39:93–96.

Cukrová V., Langrová E., Akao M.. Effects of aflatoxin B1 on myelopoiesis in vitro. Toxicology. 1991;70:203–211.

Hatori Y., Sharma R. P., Warren R. P.. Resistance of C57Bl/6 mice to immunosuppressive effects of aflatoxin B1 and relationship with neuroendocrine mechanisms. Immunopharmacology. 1991;22:127–136.

Neldon-Ortiz D. L., Qureshi M. A.. Direct and microsomal activated aflatoxin B1 exposure and its effects on turkey peritoneal macrophage functions in vitro. Toxicology and applied pharmacology. 1991;109:432–442.

Heever L. H., Dirr H. W.. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on human platelet protein kinase C. The International journal of biochemistry. 1991;23:839–843.

Scott T. R., Rowland S. M., Rodgers R. S., Bodine A. B.. Genetic selection for aflatoxin B1 resistance influences chicken T-cell and thymocyte proliferation. Developmental and comparative immunology. 1991;15:383–391.

Ghosh R. C., Chauhan H. V., Jha G. J.. Suppression of cell-mediated immunity by purified aflatoxin B1 in broiler chicks. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology. 1991;28:165–172.

Harrison J. C., Garner R. C.. Immunological and HPLC detection of aflatoxin adducts in human tissues after an acute poisoning incident in S.E. Asia. Carcinogenesis. 1991;12:741–743.

Pestka J. J., Bondy G. S.. Alteration of immune function following dietary mycotoxin exposure. Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology. 1990;68:1009–1016.

Raisuddin , Singh K. P., Zaidi S. I., Saxena A. K., Ray P. K.. Effects of aflatoxin on lymphoid cells of weanling rat. Journal of applied toxicology : JAT. 1990;10:245–250.

Cusumano V., Costa G. B., Seminara S.. Effect of aflatoxins on rat peritoneal macrophages. Applied and environmental microbiology. 1990;56:3482–3484.

Li S. Y., Lin J. K.. Sequential monitoring of cytogenetic damage in rat lymphocytes following in vivo exposure to aflatoxin B1 and N-nitrosophenacetin. Mutation research. 1990;242:219–224.

Ghosh R. C., Chauhan H. V., Roy S.. Immunosuppression in broilers under experimental aflatoxicosis. The British veterinary journal. 1990;146:457–462.

Nakatsuru Y., Qin X. S., Masahito P., Ishikawa T.. Immunological detection of in vivo aflatoxin B1-DNA adduct formation in rats, rainbow trout and coho salmon. Carcinogenesis. 1990;11:1523–1526.

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Reddy R. V., Sharma R. P.. Effects of aflatoxin B1 on murine lymphocytic functions. Toxicology. 1989;54:31–44.

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